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When it relates to purchasing a pool in Main Street Square , many people must decide whether they would like an in-ground pool or an above ground pool. While both types of pools are popular, many people would opt for to have an in-ground pool. The only problem with in-ground pools is that they are regularly costly to afford. That signifies that if you’re the owner of an in-ground pool, it is probable that you would want to have the most out of your investment.

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This can be achieved by equipping your pool with popular pool accessories.When it relates to pool accessories in Main Street Square , there are a broad variety of different items that are viewed accessories. These things earn the name accessory because they are not included with the acquire of a pool; therefore, they has to be purchased on an individual basis. Irrespective of the fact that pool accessories require spending extra money, it is likely that you will like having them. The reason for this is there are literally an unlimited number of accessories to select from. With a selection so wide, you are likely to find precisely what you would like or need.When many individuals think about pool accessories, pool toys often come to mind. Currently, there are a huge number of pool toys that are accessible obtainable. Over and over, these toys are classified into two different categories. These categories are regularly affordable pool toys and expensive ones. If you’re searching for low-cost pool toys, you are not alone. Many pool owners enjoying having pool toys, but many don’t want to expend a huge amount of cash on them. If this is the situation, you may want to look into obtaining beach balls, swim rings, dive sticks, and other similar toys. Most of these matters can be obtained for fewer than.If price is not an issue, you may wish to stare into more expensive pool toys.

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When it relates to purchasing a pool, many people must decide whether they would like an in-ground pool or an above ground pool. While both types of pools are popular, many people would opt for to have an in-ground pool. The only problem with in-ground pools is that they are regularly costly to afford. That signifies that if you're the owner of an in-ground pool, it is probable that you would want to have the most out of your investment. This can be achieved by equipping your pool with popular pool accessories.When it relates to pool accessories, there are a broad variety of different items that are viewed accessories. These things earn the name accessory because they are not included with the acquire of a pool; therefore, they has to be purchased on an individual basis. Irrespective of the fact that pool accessories require spending extra money, it is likely that you will like having them. The reason for this is there are literally an unlimited number of accessories to select from. With a selection so wide, you are likely to find precisely what you would like or need.When many individuals think about pool accessories, pool toys often come to mind. Currently, there are a huge number of pool toys that are accessible obtainable. Over and over, these toys are classified into two different categories. These categories are regularly affordable pool toys and expensive ones. If you're searching for low-cost pool toys, you are not alone. Many pool owners enjoying having pool toys, but many don't want to expend a huge amount of cash on them. If this is the situation, you may want to look into obtaining beach balls, swim rings, dive sticks, and other similar toys. Most of these matters can be obtained for fewer than.If price is not an issue, you may wish to stare into more expensive pool toys. These types of toys may comprise a basketball hoop or a volleyball net. While these popular pool toys are more costly than most traditional toys, they are commonly worth the money. Water basketball can be played with one or more swimmers. For extra fun with extra swimmers, a volleyball net can be an improved idea. What is nice about most volleyball nets and basketball hoops is that nearly all of them can readily be removed and stored.Except for the previously referred to swim toys, there are other swim toys that are available for the purpose with an in-ground pool. As well as being referred to as swim toys, these items are also occasionally referred to as pool fixtures. These things incorporate deep end diving planks and pool slides. Deep end diving boards and pool slides add extra excitement to most in-ground pools. The only downside to purchasing a swimming pool slide or a diving plank is that these things tend to be extremely high priced. In fact, they can cost 1,000's of dollars.Another popular in-ground pool fixture, that many people are largely unaware of, is a swimming pool bar. Pool bars are close to counters or small bar tables. They proposal swimmers a safe place to set or store their food or drinks, while going for a swim. Pool bars are a fairly new concept to residential pools, but they're rapidly improving in popularity. These popular items can be installed along the side of your pool or directly in it, the choices is yours to make. While it is nice to acquire fun pool accessories, you will also want to obtain important ones. Those accessories are known as cleaning supplies. Due to the truth that most in-ground pools are even with the ground, it is easier for debris to enter the pool. This signifies that you may have to clean your pool on a typical basis. When cleaning your pool, you can either use an automatic pool cleaner, a manual one, or both. No matter which type of pool cleaner you use, it is essential that you at any rate use something. An improperly cleaned pool may result risky swimming water.As you should be able to see, there are a large number of pool accessories, fixtures, and supplies that can be used with your in-ground pool. Whether you make the conclusion to only purchase one of the previously referred to items or all of them, it is probable that you will be happy with your purchase. Not simply will your pool be secure for swimming, but it may also be more fun to utilize. Average Cost To Install A Pool

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When it relates to purchasing a pool, many people must decide whether they would like an in-ground pool or an above ground pool. While both types of pools are popular, many people would opt for to have an in-ground pool. The only problem with in-ground pools is that they are regularly costly to afford. That signifies that if you're the owner of an in-ground pool, it is probable that you would want to have the most out of your investment. This can be achieved by equipping your pool with popular pool accessories.When it relates to pool accessories, there are a broad variety of different items that are viewed accessories. These things earn the name accessory because they are not included with the acquire of a pool; therefore, they has to be purchased on an individual basis. Irrespective of the fact that pool accessories require spending extra money, it is likely that you will like having them. The reason for this is there are literally an unlimited number of accessories to select from. With a selection so wide, you are likely to find precisely what you would like or need.When many individuals think about pool accessories, pool toys often come to mind. Currently, there are a huge number of pool toys that are accessible obtainable. Over and over, these toys are classified into two different categories. These categories are regularly affordable pool toys and expensive ones. If you're searching for low-cost pool toys, you are not alone. Many pool owners enjoying having pool toys, but many don't want to expend a huge amount of cash on them. If this is the situation, you may want to look into obtaining beach balls, swim rings, dive sticks, and other similar toys. Most of these matters can be obtained for fewer than.If price is not an issue, you may wish to stare into more expensive pool toys. These types of toys may comprise a basketball hoop or a volleyball net. While these popular pool toys are more costly than most traditional toys, they are commonly worth the money. Water basketball can be played with one or more swimmers. For extra fun with extra swimmers, a volleyball net can be an improved idea. What is nice about most volleyball nets and basketball hoops is that nearly all of them can readily be removed and stored.Except for the previously referred to swim toys, there are other swim toys that are available for the purpose with an in-ground pool. As well as being referred to as swim toys, these items are also occasionally referred to as pool fixtures. These things incorporate deep end diving planks and pool slides. Deep end diving boards and pool slides add extra excitement to most in-ground pools. The only downside to purchasing a swimming pool slide or a diving plank is that these things tend to be extremely high priced. In fact, they can cost 1,000's of dollars.Another popular in-ground pool fixture, that many people are largely unaware of, is a swimming pool bar. Pool bars are close to counters or small bar tables. They proposal swimmers a safe place to set or store their food or drinks, while going for a swim. Pool bars are a fairly new concept to residential pools, but they're rapidly improving in popularity. These popular items can be installed along the side of your pool or directly in it, the choices is yours to make. While it is nice to acquire fun pool accessories, you will also want to obtain important ones. Those accessories are known as cleaning supplies. Due to the truth that most in-ground pools are even with the ground, it is easier for debris to enter the pool. This signifies that you may have to clean your pool on a typical basis. When cleaning your pool, you can either use an automatic pool cleaner, a manual one, or both. No matter which type of pool cleaner you use, it is essential that you at any rate use something. An improperly cleaned pool may result risky swimming water.As you should be able to see, there are a large number of pool accessories, fixtures, and supplies that can be used with your in-ground pool. Whether you make the conclusion to only purchase one of the previously referred to items or all of them, it is probable that you will be happy with your purchase. Not simply will your pool be secure for swimming, but it may also be more fun to utilize.

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South Dakota Rushmore Mall Fiberglass Pools

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When it relates to purchasing a pool in Rushmore Mall , many people must decide whether they would like an in-ground pool or an above ground pool. While both types of pools are popular, many people would opt for to have an in-ground pool. The only problem with in-ground pools is that they are regularly costly to afford. That signifies that if you’re the owner of an in-ground pool, it is probable that you would want to have the most out of your investment.

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This can be achieved by equipping your pool with popular pool accessories.When it relates to pool accessories in Rushmore Mall , there are a broad variety of different items that are viewed accessories. These things earn the name accessory because they are not included with the acquire of a pool; therefore, they has to be purchased on an individual basis. Irrespective of the fact that pool accessories require spending extra money, it is likely that you will like having them. The reason for this is there are literally an unlimited number of accessories to select from. With a selection so wide, you are likely to find precisely what you would like or need.When many individuals think about pool accessories, pool toys often come to mind. Currently, there are a huge number of pool toys that are accessible obtainable. Over and over, these toys are classified into two different categories. These categories are regularly affordable pool toys and expensive ones. If you’re searching for low-cost pool toys, you are not alone. Many pool owners enjoying having pool toys, but many don’t want to expend a huge amount of cash on them. If this is the situation, you may want to look into obtaining beach balls, swim rings, dive sticks, and other similar toys. Most of these matters can be obtained for fewer than.If price is not an issue, you may wish to stare into more expensive pool toys.

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Jump to search Artificial container filled with water intended for swimming For other uses, see Swimming pool (disambiguation). Backyard swimming pool Olympic swimming pool and starting blocks used for the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, Australia A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or paddling pool is a structure designed to hold water to enable swimming or other leisure activities. Pools can be built into the ground (in-ground pools) or built above ground (as a freestanding construction or as part of a building or other larger structure), and are also a common feature aboard ocean-liners and cruise ships. In-ground pools are most commonly constructed from materials such as concrete, natural stone, metal, plastic or fiberglass, and can be of a custom size and shape or built to a standardized size, the largest of which is the Olympic-size swimming pool. Many health clubs, fitness centers and private clubs have pools used mostly for exercise or recreation. Many towns and cities provide public pools. Many hotels have pools available for their guests to use at their leisure. Educational facilities such as universities typically have pools for physical education classes, recreational activities, leisure or competitive athletics such as swimming teams. Hot tubs and spas are pools filled with hot water, used for relaxation or hydrotherapy, and are common in homes, hotels, and health clubs. Special swimming pools are also used for diving, specialized water sports, physical therapy as well as for the training of lifeguards and astronauts. Swimming pools may be heated or unheated. See also: History of water supply and sanitation Ancient Roman baths in Bath, England, UK The "Great Bath" at the site of Mohenjo-Daro in modern-day Pakistan was most likely the first swimming pool, dug during the 3rd millennium BC. This pool is 12 by 7 metres (39 by 23 feet), is lined with bricks, and was covered with a tar-based sealant.[1] Ancient Greeks and Romans built artificial pools for athletic training in the palaestras, for nautical games and for military exercises. Roman emperors had private swimming pools in which fish were also kept, hence one of the Latin words for a pool was piscina. The first heated swimming pool was built by Gaius Maecenas of Rome in the 1st century BC. Gaius Maecenas was a rich Roman lord and considered one of the first patrons of arts.[2] Ancient Sinhalese built pairs of pools called "Kuttam Pokuna" in the kingdom of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka in the 4th century BC. They were decorated with flights of steps, punkalas or pots of abundance, and scroll design.[3] Swimming pools became popular in Britain in the mid-19th century. As early as 1837, six indoor pools with diving boards existed in London, England.[4] The Maidstone Swimming Club in Maidstone, Kent is believed to be the oldest surviving swimming club in Britain. It was formed in 1844, in response to concerns over drownings in the River Medway, especially since would-be rescuers would often drown because they themselves could not swim to safety. The club used to swim in the River Medway, and would hold races, diving competitions and water polo matches. The South East Gazette July 1844 reported an aquatic breakfast party: coffee and biscuits were served on a floating raft in the river. The coffee was kept hot over a fire; club members had to tread water and drink coffee at the same time. The last swimmers managed to overturn the raft, to the amusement of 150 spectators.[5] The Amateur Swimming Association was founded in 1869 in England,[citation needed] and the Oxford Swimming Club in 1909.[6] The presence of indoor baths in the cobbled area of Merton Street might have persuaded the less hardy of the aquatic brigade to join. So, bathers gradually became swimmers, and bathing pools became swimming pools.[citation needed]. In 1939, Oxford created its first major public indoor pool at Temple Cowley. The modern Olympic Games started in 1896 and included swimming races, after which the popularity of swimming pools began to spread. In the US, the Racquet Club of Philadelphia clubhouse (1907) boasts one of the world's first modern above-ground swimming pools. The first swimming pool to go to sea on an ocean liner was installed on the White Star Line's Adriatic in 1906.[7] The oldest known public swimming pool in America, Underwood Pool, is located in Belmont, Massachusetts.[8] Interest in competitive swimming grew following World War I. Standards improved and training became essential. Home swimming pools became popular in the United States after World War II and the publicity given to swimming sports by Hollywood films such as Esther Williams' Million Dollar Mermaid made a home pool a desirable status symbol. More than 50 years later, the home or residential swimming pool is a common sight. Some small nations enjoy a thriving swimming pool industry (e.g., New Zealand pop. 4,116,900 [Source NZ Census 7 March 2006] – holds the record in pools per capita with 65,000 home swimming pools and 125,000 spa pools).[citation needed] A two-storey, white concrete swimming pool building composed of horizontal cubic volumes built in 1959 at the Royal Roads Military College is on the Registry of Historic Places of Canada.[9] Further information: List of largest swimming pools Moskva Pool, at one time the largest swimming pool in the world (1980) According to the Guinness World Records, the largest swimming pool in the world is San Alfonso del Mar Seawater pool in Algarrobo, Chile. It is 1,013 m (3,323 ft) long and has an area of 8 ha (20 acres). At its deepest, it is 3.5 m (11 ft) deep.[10] It was completed in December 2006.[11] The largest indoor wave pool in North America is at the West Edmonton Mall and the largest indoor pool is at the Neutral Buoyancy Lab in the Sonny Carter Training Facility at NASA JSC in Houston.[12][13] In 2014, the Y-40 swimming pool at the Hotel Terme Millepini in Padua, Italy became the deepest indoor pool, certified by the Guinness Book of World Records[14] The recreational diving center Nemo 33 near Brussels, Belgium previously held the record until the Y-40 was completed.[15] The Fleishhacker Pool in San Francisco was the largest heated outdoor swimming pool in the United States. Opened on 23 April 1925, it measured 1,000 by 150 ft (300 by 50 m) and was so large that the lifeguards required kayaks for patrol. It was closed in 1971 due to low patronage.[16] In Europe, the largest swimming pool opened in 1934 in Elbląg (Poland), providing a water area of 33,500 square metres (361,000 sq ft).[17] One of the largest swimming pools ever built was reputedly created in Moscow after the Palace of Soviets remained uncompleted. The foundations of the palace were converted into the Moskva Pool open-air swimming pool after the process of de-Stalinisation.[18] However, after the fall of communism, Christ the Saviour Cathedral was re-built on the site between 1995 and 2000; the cathedral had originally been located there.[citation needed] The highest swimming pool is believed to be in Yangbajain (Tibet, China). This resort is located at 4200 m AMSL and has two indoor swimming pools and one outdoor swimming pool, all filled with water from hot springs.[19] Cairns Lagoon, a public swimming pool in Australia Rooftop pool in Manhattan See: Competition pools (below) Length: Most pools in the world are measured in metres, but in the United States pools are often measured in feet and yards. In the UK most pools are calibrated in metres, but older pools measured in yards still exist. In the US, pools tend to either be 25 yards (SCY-short course yards), 25 metres (SCM-short course metres) or 50 metres (long course). US high schools and the NCAA conduct short course (25 yards) competition. There are also many pools 33⅓ m long, so that 3 lengths = 100 m. This pool dimension is commonly used to accommodate water polo.[citation needed] USA Swimming (USA-S) swims in both metric and non-metric pools. However, the international standard is metres, and world records are only recognized when swum in 50 m pools (or 25 m for short course) but 25-yard pools are very common in the US. In general, the shorter the pool, the faster the time for the same distance, since the swimmer gains speed from pushing off the wall after each turn at the end of the pool. Width: Most European pools are between 10 m and 50 m wide.[citation needed] Depth: The depth of a swimming pool depends on the purpose of the pool, and whether it is open to the public or strictly for private use. If it is a private casual, relaxing pool, it may go from 1.0 to 2.0 m (3.3 to 6.6 ft) deep. If it is a public pool designed for diving, it may slope from 3.0 to 5.5 m (10 to 18 ft) in the deep end. A children's play pool may be from 0.3 to 1.2 m (1 to 4 ft) deep. Most public pools have differing depths to accommodate different swimmer requirements. In many jurisdictions, it is a requirement to show the water depth with clearly marked depths affixed to the pool walls.[citation needed] Children playing in an above-ground pool Pools can be either indoors or outdoors. They can be of any size and shape, and inground or above ground. Most pools are permanent fixtures, while others are temporary, collapsible structures. Private pools are usually smaller than public pools, on average 3.7 m × 7.3 m (12 ft × 24 ft) to 6.1 m × 12.2 m (20 ft × 40 ft) whereas public pools usually start at 24 m (80 ft).[citation needed] Home pools can be permanently built-in, or be assembled above ground and disassembled after summer. Privately owned outdoor pools in backyards or gardens started to proliferate in the 1950s in regions with warm summer climates, particularly in the United States with desegregation.[20] Construction methods for private pools vary greatly. The main types of in-ground pools are gunite shotcrete, concrete, vinyl-lined, and one-piece fiberglass shells. Many countries now have strict pool fencing requirements for private swimming pools, which require pool areas to be isolated so that unauthorized children younger than six years cannot enter. Many countries require a similar level of protection for the children residing in or visiting the house, although many pool owners prefer the visual aspect of the pool in close proximity to their living areas, and will not provide this level of protection. There is no consensus between states or countries on the requirements to fence private swimming pools, and in many places they are not required at all, particularly in rural settings.[21] Inexpensive temporary polyvinyl chloride pools can be bought in supermarkets and taken down after summer. They are used mostly outdoors in yards, are typically shallow, and often their sides are inflated with air to stay rigid. When finished, the water and air can be let out and this type of pool can be folded up for convenient storage. They are regarded in the swimming pool industry as "splasher" pools intended for cooling off and amusing toddlers and children, not for swimming, hence the alternate name of "kiddie" pools.[citation needed] Toys are available for children and other people to play with in pool water. They are often blown up with air so they are soft but still reasonably rugged, and can float in water. Tooting Bec Lido, in South London Public pools are often part of a larger leisure centre or recreational complex. These centres often have more than one pool, such as an indoor heated pool, an outdoor (chlorinated, saltwater or ozonated) pool which may be heated or unheated, a shallower children's pool, and a paddling pool for toddlers and infants. There may also be a sauna and one or more hot tubs or spa pools ("jacuzzis"). Many upscale hotels and holiday resorts have a swimming pool for use by their guests. If a pool is in a separate building, the building may be called a natatorium. The building may sometimes also have facilities for related activities, such as a diving tank. Larger pools sometimes have a diving board affixed at one edge above the water. Many public swimming pools are rectangles 25 m or 50 m long, but they can be any size and shape. There are also elaborate pools with artificial waterfalls, fountains, splash pads, wave machines, varying depths of water, bridges, and island bars. Some swimming facilities have lockers for clothing and other belongings. The lockers can require a coin to be inserted in a slot, either as deposit or payment. There are usually showers - sometimes mandatory - before and/or after swimming. There are often also lifeguards to ensure the safety of users. Wading or paddling pools are shallow bodies of water intended for use by small children, usually in parks. Concrete wading pools come in many shapes, traditionally rectangle, square or circle. Some are filled and drained daily due to lack of a filter system. Staff chlorinate the water to ensure health and safety standards.[citation needed] Racing pool at the University of Minnesota A simplified diagram of the FINA long course swimming pool standard, used at the World Championships and Summer Olympics See: #Dimensions (above) and Swimming (sport)#Competition pools The Fédération Internationale de la Natation (FINA, International Swimming Federation) sets standards for competition pools: 25 or 50 m (82 or 164 ft) long and at least 1.35 m (4.4 ft) deep. Competition pools are generally indoors and heated to enable their use all year round, and to more easily comply with the regulations regarding temperature, lighting, and automatic officiating equipment. An Olympic-size swimming pool (first used at the 1924 Olympics) is a pool that meets FINA's additional standards for the Olympic Games and for world championship events. It must be 50 by 25 m (164 by 82 ft) wide, divided into eight lanes of 2.5 m (8.2 ft) each, plus two areas of 2.5 m (8.2 ft) at each side of the pool. Depth must be at least 2 m (6.6 ft).[22] The water must be kept at 25–28 °C (77–82 °F) and the lighting level at greater than 1500 lux. There are also regulations for color of lane rope, positioning of backstroke flags (5 metres from each wall), and so on.[22] Pools claimed to be "Olympic pools" do not always meet these regulations, as FINA cannot police use of the term. Touchpads are mounted on both walls for long course meets and each end for short course. A pool may be referred to as fast or slow, depending on its physical layout.[23] Some design considerations allow the reduction of swimming resistance making the pool faster: namely, proper pool depth, elimination of currents, increased lane width, energy absorbing racing lane lines and gutters, and the use of other innovative hydraulic, acoustic and illumination designs. In the last two decades, a new style of pool has gained popularity. These consist of a small vessel (usually about 2.5 × 5 m) in which the swimmer swims in place, either against the push of an artificially generated water current or against the pull of restraining devices. These pools have several names, such as swim spas, swimming machines, or swim systems. They are all examples of different modes of resistance swimming. A home spa A boy relaxing in a hot tub Hot tubs and spa pools are common heated pools used for relaxation and sometimes for therapy. Commercial spas are common in the swimming pool area or sauna area of a health club or fitness centre, in men's clubs, women's clubs, motels and exclusive five-star hotel suites. Spa clubs may have very large pools, some segmented into increasing temperatures. In Japan, men's clubs with many spas of different size and temperature are common. Commercial spas are generally made of concrete, with a mosaic tiled interior. More recently with the innovation of the pre-form composite method where mosaic tiles are bonded to the shell this enables commercial spas to be completely factory manufactured to specification and delivered in one piece. Hot tubs are typically made somewhat like a wine barrel with straight sides, from wood such as Californian redwood held in place by metal hoops. Immersion of the head is not recommended in spas or hot tubs due to a potential risk of underwater entrapment from the pump suction forces. However, commercial installations in many countries must comply with various safety standards which reduce this risk considerably. Home spas are a worldwide retail item in western countries since the 1980s, and are sold in dedicated spa stores, pool shops, department stores, the Internet, and catalog sales books. They are almost always made from heat-extruded acrylic sheet Perspex, often colored in marble look-alike patterns. They rarely exceed 6 m2 (65 sq ft) and are typically 1 m (3 ft 3 in) deep, restricted by the availability of the raw sheet sizes (typically manufactured in Japan). There is often a mid-depth seating or lounging system, and contoured lounger style reclining seats are common. Upmarket spas include various jet nozzles (massage, pulsating, etc.), a drinks tray, lights, LCD flat-screen TV sets and other features that make the pool a recreation center. Due to their family-oriented nature, home spas are normally operated from 36 to 39 °C (97 to 102 °F). Many pools are incorporated in a redwood or simulated wood surround, and are termed "portable" as they may be placed on a patio rather than sunken into a permanent location. Some portable spas are shallow and narrow enough to fit sideways through a standard door and be used inside a room. Low power electric immersion heaters are common with home spas. Whirlpool tubs first became popular in America during the 1960s and 1970s. A spa is also called a "jacuzzi" in USA since the word became a generic after plumbing component manufacturer Jacuzzi introduced the "spa whirlpool" in 1968. Air bubbles may be introduced into the nozzles via an air-bleed venturi pump that combines cooler air with the incoming heated water to cool the pool if the temperature rises uncomfortably high. Some spas have a constant stream of bubbles fed via the seating area of the pool, or a footwell area. This is more common as a temperature control device where the heated water comes from a natural (uncontrolled heat) geothermal source, rather than artificially heated. Water temperature is usually very warm to hot — 38 to 42 °C (100 to 108 °F), so bathers usually stay in for only 20 to 30 minutes. Bromine or mineral sanitizers are often recommended as sanitizers for spas because chlorine dissipates at a high temperature thereby heightening its strong chemical smell. Ozone is an effective bactericide and is commonly included in the circulation system with cartridge filtration, but not with sand media filtration due to clogging problems with turbid body fats. An ocean pool at Coogee in Sydney, Australia In the early 20th century, especially in Australia, ocean pools were built, typically on headlands by enclosing part of the rock shelf, with water circulated through the pools by flooding from tidal tanks or by regular flooding over the side of the pools at high tide. This continued a pre-European tradition of bathing in rockpools with many of the current sites being expanded from sites used by Aboriginal Australians or early European settlers. Bathing in these pools provided security against both rough surf and sea life. There were often separate pools for women and men, or the pool was open to the sexes at different times with a break for bathers to climb in without fear of observation by the other sex.[24] These were the forerunners of modern "Olympic" pools. A variation was the later development of sea- or harbour-side pools that circulated sea water using pumps. A pool of this type was the training ground for Australian Olympian Dawn Fraser. There are currently about 100 ocean baths in New South Wales, which can range from small pools roughly 25 metres long and "Olympic Sized" (50m) to the very large, such as the 50 × 100 m baths in Newcastle. While most are free, a number charge fees, such as the Bondi Icebergs Club pool at Bondi Beach. Despite the development of chlorinated and heated pools, ocean baths remain a popular form of recreation in New South Wales. A semi-natural ocean pool exists on the central coast of New South Wales; it is called The Bogey Hole. Infinity pool An infinity edge pool (also named negative edge or vanishing edge pool) is a swimming pool which produces a visual effect of water extending to the horizon, vanishing, or extending to "infinity". Often, the water appears to fall into an ocean, lake, bay, or other similar body of water. The illusion is most effective whenever there is a significant change in elevation, though having a natural body of water on the horizon is not a limiting factor.[citation needed] Natural pools were developed in central and western Europe in the early and mid-1980s by designers and landscape architects with environmental concerns. They have recently been growing in popularity as an alternative to traditional swimming pools.[25] Natural pools are constructed bodies of water in which no chemicals or devices that disinfect or sterilize water are used, and all the cleaning of the pool is achieved purely with the motion of the water through biological filters and plants rooted hydroponically in the system. In essence, natural pools seek to recreate swimming holes and swimmable lakes, the environment where people feel safe swimming in a non-polluted, healthy, and ecologically balanced body of water. Water in natural pools has many desirable characteristics. For example, red eyes, dried-out skin and hair, and bleached bathing suits associated with overly chlorinated water are naturally absent in natural pools.[citation needed] Natural pools, by requiring a water garden to be a part of the system, offer different aesthetic options and can support amphibious wildlife such as snails, frogs, and salamanders, and even small fish if desired. A zero-entry swimming pool, also called a beach entry swimming pool, is a swimming pool having an edge or entry that gradually slopes from the deck into the water, becoming deeper with each step, in the manner of a natural beach. As there are no stairs or ladders to navigate, this type of entry assists older people, young children and people with accessibility problems (e.g., people with a physical disability) where gradual entry is useful. Indoor pools are located inside, under a roof and insulated by at least three walls. Built for the purpose of year-round swimming or training, they are found in all climate types. Since the pool room is insulated, it is less likely the heat will escape; making it less expensive to heat than an outdoor pool where the heat will escape.[26] Architecturally, the indoor pool may look like the rest of the house, but in terms of engineering, variables such as heating and ventilation are required to ensure comfortable humidity levels. In addition to drainage and automatic pool covers, there are a number of ways to remove humidity in the air that is present with any wet indoor environment. Efficient dehumidification in the indoor pool environment prevents structural damage, lowers energy costs in addition to improving the room's climate to make it a comfortable swimming environment. An astronaut prepares to descend into a swimming pool as part of a training exercise. Swimming pools are also used for events such as synchronized swimming, water polo, canoe polo and underwater sports such as underwater hockey, underwater rugby, finswimming and sport diving as well as for teaching diving, lifesaving and scuba diving techniques. They have also been used for specialist tasks such as teaching water-ditching survival techniques for aircraft and submarine crews and astronaut training. Round-cornered, irregular swimming pools, such as the Nude Bowl, were drained of water and used for vertical skateboarding. Main article: Swimming pool sanitation Levels of bacteria and viruses in swimming pool water must be kept low to prevent the spread of diseases and pathogens. Bacteria, algae and insect larvae can enter the pool if water is not properly sanitized. Pumps, mechanical sand filters, and disinfectants are often used to sanitise the water. Chemical disinfectants, such as chlorine (usually as a hypochlorite salt, such as calcium hypochlorite) and bromine, are commonly used to kill pathogens. If not properly maintained, chemical sanitation can produce high levels of disinfection byproducts. Sanitized swimming pool water can theoretically appear green if a certain amount of iron salts or copper chloride are present in the water.[27] Acesulfame potassium has been used to estimate how much urine is discharged by swimmers into a pool.[28] In a Canadian study it was estimated that swimmers had released 75 litres of urine into a large pool that had about 830,000 litres of water and was a third of the size of an olympic pool. Hot tubs were found to have higher readings of the marker. While urine itself is sterile, its degradation products may lead to asthma.[28] Swimming pool heating costs can be significantly reduced by using a pool cover. Use of a pool cover also can help reduce the amount of chemicals (chlorine, etc.) required by the pool. Outdoor pools gain heat from the sun, absorbing 75–85% of the solar energy striking the pool surface. Though a cover decreases the total amount of solar heat absorbed by the pool, the cover eliminates heat loss due to evaporation and reduces heat loss at night through its insulating properties. Most swimming pool heat loss is through evaporation.[29] The heating effectiveness of a cover depends on type. A transparent bubble cover is the most effective, as it allows the largest amount of solar flux into the pool itself. Thermal bubble covers are lightweight UV-stabilized floating covers designed to minimize heat loss on heated swimming pools. Typically they are only fitted in spring and fall (autumn) when the temperature difference between pool water and air temperature is greatest. When used consistently they can raise average pool temperatures of an outdoor pool by around 18 °Fahrenheit (11 °Celsius) when combined with a well sized solar pool heating system, or about 11° Fahrenheit (6 °Celsius) without a solar heater but with full sun exposure.[30] Bubble covers are typically applied and removed by being rolled up on a device fitted to one side of the pool (see illustration). Covers fall apart after four or five years due to sun exposure, overheating in the sun while off the pool, and chlorine attacking the plastic. Bubble covers should be removed during super chlorination. A vinyl cover absorbs more sunlight directly, allowing temperature to rise faster, but ultimately prevents the pool from reaching as high a temperature as a clear cover.[31] Vinyl covers consist of a heavier material and have a longer life expectancy than bubble covers. Insulated vinyl covers are also available with a thin layer of flexible insulation sandwiched between two layers of vinyl.[31] These covers are mandatory[citation needed] to be fitted to all pools in areas of Australia that have experienced drought since 2006. This is an effort to conserve water, as much water evaporates and transpires. An alternative to a continuous sheet of pool covering is multiple floating disks which are deployed and removed disk by disk. They cover most of the surface of the pool and offer evaporation reduction similar to continuous covers. Various types are available, for example opaque (for UV resistance and possible reduced algal growth), transparent (for esthetics), heavy and solid (for wind resistance), light and inflatable (for ease of handling). Liquid covers Liquid covers are also an option. They use a microscopically thin layer of liquid (such as cetyl alcohol) that sits on the water surface and reduces evaporation, which is one of the major sources of heat loss as well as water loss. Unlike other covers, the pool can be used while the liquid cover is in place, and the nontoxic material is safe for people as well as pumping / filtering systems. The liquid must be replenished regularly (monthly or more), and may not be effective in windy areas (since the wind will disperse the thin layer). Safety covers These covers are typically attached all winter, by hooked bungee cords or hooked springs connected to the pool deck, and are usually made in a variety of materials including coated or laminated vinyl or polypropylene mesh. They are custom designed to stop leaf debris from entering the pool but more importantly they also provide safety for animals and small children when designed and installed properly. The custom safety cover was invented in 1957 by Fred Meyer Jr. of Meyco Pool Covers when he found a dead animal in his pool. Today covers are made to meet ASTM safety barrier standards and have kept animals, people and even large vehicles out of the pool. They are not popular in warmer climates, due to the five to ten minutes it takes to fit/remove them, making them inconvenient for repeated application and removal. Automatic pool cover A pool cover can be either manually, semi-automatically, or automatically operated. Manual covers can be folded and stored in an off site location. Pool cover reels can also be used to help manually roll up the pool cover. The reel, usually on wheels, can be rolled in or out of place. Semi-automatic covers use a motor-driven reel system. They use electrical power to roll and unroll the cover, but usually require someone to pull on the cover when unrolling, or guide the cover onto the reel when rolling up the cover. Semi-automatic covers can be built into the pool deck surrounding the pool, or can use reels on carts. Automatic covers have permanently mounted reels that automatically cover and uncover the pool at the push of a button. They are the most expensive option, but are also the most convenient. These reels can be run from either an external motor requiring a pit to be dug beside the pool or using an internal motor that spins the reel. Some pool covers fit into tracks along the sides of the pool. This prevents anything or anybody from getting into the pool. They even support the weight of several people. They can be run manually, semi-automatically, or automatically. Safety covers may be required by inspectors for public pools.[31] In areas which reach freezing temperature, it is important to close a pool properly. This varies greatly between in-ground and above-ground pools. By taking steps to properly secure the pool, it lessens the likelihood that the superstructure will be damaged or compromised by freezing water.[32] A rolled up Thermal Bubble pool cover, used to reduce water loss from evaporation and heat loss from the pool In preparation for freezing temperatures, an in-ground swimming pool's pipes must be emptied. An above-ground pool should also be closed, so that ice does not drag down the pool wall, collapsing its structure. The plumbing is sealed with air, typically with rubber plugs, to prevent cracking from freezing water. The pool is typically covered to prevent leaves and other debris from falling in. The cover is attached to the pool typically using a stretch cord, similar to a bungee cord and hooks fitted into the pool surround. The skimmer is closed off or a floating device is placed into it to prevent it from completely freezing and cracking. Floating objects such as life rings or basketballs can be placed in the pool to avoid its freezing under the cover. Sand or DE filters must be backwashed, with the main drain plug removed and all water drained out. Drain plugs on the pool filter are removed after the filter has been cleaned. The pool pump motor is taken under cover. Winter chemicals are added to keep the pool clean. The innovation of a composite construction of fibreglass, with an epoxy coating and porcelain ceramic tiles has led to the Pre-form, Composite-type with significant advantages over older methods; however, it also has increased sensitivity to metal staining. In climates where there is no risk of freezing, closing down the pool for winter is not so important. Typically, the thermal cover is removed and stored. Winter sunlight can create an algae mess when a cover that has been left on all winter is removed. The pool is correctly pH-balanced and super-chlorinated. One part algaecide for every 50,000 parts of pool water should be added, and topped up each month. The pool should be filtered for one to two hours daily to keep the automated chlorination system active.[citation needed] Pools pose a risk of drowning, which may be significant for swimmers who are inexperienced, suffer from seizures, or are susceptible to a heart or respiratory condition. Lifeguards are employed at most pools to execute water rescues and administer first aid as needed in order to reduce this risk. Diving in shallow areas of a pool may also lead to significant head and neck injuries; diving, especially head-first diving, should be done in the deepest point of the pool, minimally 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in), but desirably 3.7 m (12 ft), deeper if the distance between the water and the board is great. Pools also present a risk of death due to drowning, particularly in young children. In regions where residential pools are common, drowning is a major cause of childhood death. As a precaution, many jurisdictions require that residential pools be enclosed with fencing to restrict unauthorized access. Many products exist, such as removable baby fences. The evidence for floating alarms and window/door alarms to reduce the risk of drowning is poor.[33] Some pools are equipped with computer-aided drowning prevention or other forms of electronic safety and security systems. Suspended ceilings in indoor swimming pools are safety-relevant components. The selection of materials under tension should be done with care. Especially the selection of unsuitable stainless steels can cause problems with stress corrosion cracking.[34] Further information: Mixed bathing In public swimming pools, dress code may be stricter than on public beaches, and in indoor pools stricter than outdoor pools. For example, in countries where women can be topless on the beach, this is often not allowed in a swimming pool, and a swimsuit must be worn. For men, wearing ordinary shorts and a tee shirt to go in the water at a beach may be considered acceptable, but pools usually require real swim suits or other dedicated water wear. Swimming with regular clothes on is not only unhygienic,[citation needed] but can potentially weigh a swimmer down should he or she need to be rescued. In France and some other European countries, board shorts are usually not allowed for hygienic reasons. In Nordic countries and in particular Iceland, rules about clothing and hygiene are especially strict.[35] When diving from a high board, swim suits are sometimes worn doubled up (one brief inside another) in case the outer suit tears on impact with the water. How Much To Build A Pool In Backyard

7 Must-Haves For Pool Owners

In ground pools are most commonly seen in hotels and private villas and require thorough care and maintenance. You need to take care of your in ground swimming pool in order to keep it free from various algae and fungal infections. There are many accessories which are required for the care of in ground swimming pools. Some of them are the following:* Automatic pool cleaners: The automatic pool cleaners are essential for keeping your swimming pool free from various floating as well as submerged algae and fungi. The main advantage of the pool cleaner is that it can thoroughly clean the bottom of the pool. It can be used with plaster, fiberglass, pebble-tec, and vinyl pools. The pool cleaner can clean the deeper debris in just a short period of time and therefore is of great advantage for the swimming pools which are used for professional use (the time however varies in each case and in case of larger pools the time taken is much more). There are suction style pool cleaners which are stylish and high-tech in their designs. It works silently through water. Some suction pool sharks (cleaners) can glide smoothly through water. The stubborn dirt is removed with the help of these cleaners.* Pool Bottom: There may be hard resin pool bottoms or cover pool bottoms. There are hardly any footprints in the pool bottom and the pool bottom is made in such way that nut grasses can grow there. There is no shifting of sand and it is very easy to install the hard resin pool bottom.* Sun pools are also available with the swimming pools. They are of great help especially for avoiding the scorching rays of the sun.* Pool equipment includes safety alarms, which are especially required when you have small children in your house. They start ringing when you cross the limit of the pool (where the actual lining is placed). It is especially essential for those houses where there is a vast swimming pool without guards and there are small children inside.* Swimming accessories also include swimwear which is of great importance. The swimwear includes both the men's wear and the women's wear. There are ladders which helps people to climb on to the top and dive into the swimming pool. This is a great fun for youngsters. Pool covers are mainly used to cover the pools and maintain the temperature of water even when it is extremely high or low outside.

https://www.getpoolrepair.pro/places-of-interest-rapid-city-pool-installation/

Pool Installation In Rushmore Mall 

South Dakota Rapid City Public Library Pool Installation

Cheap Above Ground Swimming Pools

When it relates to purchasing a pool in Rapid City Public Library , many people must decide whether they would like an in-ground pool or an above ground pool. While both types of pools are popular, many people would opt for to have an in-ground pool. The only problem with in-ground pools is that they are regularly costly to afford. That signifies that if you’re the owner of an in-ground pool, it is probable that you would want to have the most out of your investment.

How Much To Build A Pool In Backyard

Best Swimming Pools For Sale In Places Of Interest Rapid City

This can be achieved by equipping your pool with popular pool accessories.When it relates to pool accessories in Rapid City Public Library , there are a broad variety of different items that are viewed accessories. These things earn the name accessory because they are not included with the acquire of a pool; therefore, they has to be purchased on an individual basis. Irrespective of the fact that pool accessories require spending extra money, it is likely that you will like having them. The reason for this is there are literally an unlimited number of accessories to select from. With a selection so wide, you are likely to find precisely what you would like or need.When many individuals think about pool accessories, pool toys often come to mind. Currently, there are a huge number of pool toys that are accessible obtainable. Over and over, these toys are classified into two different categories. These categories are regularly affordable pool toys and expensive ones. If you’re searching for low-cost pool toys, you are not alone. Many pool owners enjoying having pool toys, but many don’t want to expend a huge amount of cash on them. If this is the situation, you may want to look into obtaining beach balls, swim rings, dive sticks, and other similar toys. Most of these matters can be obtained for fewer than.If price is not an issue, you may wish to stare into more expensive pool toys.

Average Cost To Put In A Pool

Swimming Pool Repair Kits

You may be stunned at the absolutely tranquil, beautiful, inviting and certainly anything - but - ordinary styles of pools, you can find on the market today. You may see something great for your back yard, front yard or garden that you may have never considered before. There are many different kinds of pools, spools, spas, ponds and more that are great ideas for enhancing the ambiance of your home outdoors and to simply have more fun there! Aside from the pool itself, there will be all kinds of supplies specifically for pools that you will need. Just as the type of pool (which you decide to build or to have someone build for you) will be carefully determined, the pool supplies you use will with and for your pool be determined by the kind of pool you have and the manner in which it is primarily to be used.Ultimately your choice will depend on a compilation of many different factors, mostly unique to your home property (or the property on which you plan to build). You should choose the perfect pool best designed to best suit the purpose for which you want it. For example: to entertain children, for lounging in the sun, for diving, swimming laps, or as a beautiful, soothing and cooling part of the overall landscape. In basic summation: your pool design should be based on personal taste, the primary function of the pool, budget, the space that is there and available for you to work with, and who (i.e. what age groups) will be mostly using the pool, etc. The last on this list of things to consider is very important for you to remember: because it has to do with safety and will dictate the different pool supplies you will need as well.Even if the perfect home pool is, in your imagination right now, a cascading free-form pool, there can be jagged rocks (and often are) or other hazards especially dangerous for smaller kids. A safety fence or any other kind of fencing simply clashes with the ambiance of a free-form pool. Therefore, people with small kids, or whose pool will often accommodate small kids, may not want to get a free-form pool installed - even if it was the original idea. The good news is that with all the sorts of pools that are now available to purchase, you can beautify your home and enrich your experiences through the sunny days at home with a soothing outdoor pool. No matter what kind of pool you want, you will need certain pool supplies, and land requirements must be met. Find out what is available and make the very best decision for you and your friends and family.Essential pool supplies required for any pool you choose no matter what type, style or size, will be chemicals for the maintenance of safe and clean water in which to swim, dive, lounge or play. Of course, the amount of chemicals used in a certain pool may be very different than the amount of chemicals used in another kind of pool. If there is less water, for example, you will not need as much chlorine and other chemicals than if you have a much larger pool primarily used for laps, perhaps, and frequently used. Any kind of pool, even a reflecting pool or a pond, will also need a filter to pump the water and keep it continuously circulating. Believe it or not, this is a requirement for a free-form pool (usually a waterfall helps as part of the filtration / pumping system), or reflecting pools. Even if the pool or pond used for fish, water plants and as a habitat for other wildlife, the water must not be without some kind of filtration system. Factor these necessities into your budget if you want to purchase a pool for your yard or garden.As a rule, fences are almost always a good idea no matter what type of pool you have. This does not, however, mean that the fence has to surround the pool closely like it would at a park or public swim area. Nonetheless, even if you do not have children of your own, and the law does not require a fence, it is safe and helpful to your neighbors and your community to build a physical boundary around your property. This is a sure way to prevent tragedies such as the drowning of neighborhood children who wander into your yard, or to prevent vandalism or other damage by teenagers who decide to go "pool hopping" in rich neighborhoods at night. Primary targets of such reckless youthful activities have proven to be homes with heated pools, or even just with hot tubs in the yard.If you are building your own pool, there are pool kits available to help you. However, often they will not include some of the things you will need. Sometimes it is actually less expensive to purchase instructions and pool building supplies such as concrete mix separately. Certain pools really can not be accomplished to achieve the desired effect without having an expert take over the building and design. Other kinds of pools, however, are incredibly simple to build on your own (without special training), if you have the ability and ambition.Then there are the fun pool supplies! These are the types of pool supplies you think of when someone says the words "pool supplies." Pool sheds, noodles, rafts, water wings, lounge chairs, patio furniture, and more are among the many pool supplies that many people want or need to keep on-hand. Technically, these qualify as more pool accessories than pool supplies - but if they are things you really want for the purpose of enjoying your overall outdoor experience, the term is close enough. Fiberglass Pool Repair Underwater

Swimming Pool Repair Kits

In ground pools are most commonly seen in hotels and private villas and require thorough care and maintenance. You need to take care of your in ground swimming pool in order to keep it free from various algae and fungal infections. There are many accessories which are required for the care of in ground swimming pools. Some of them are the following:* Automatic pool cleaners: The automatic pool cleaners are essential for keeping your swimming pool free from various floating as well as submerged algae and fungi. The main advantage of the pool cleaner is that it can thoroughly clean the bottom of the pool. It can be used with plaster, fiberglass, pebble-tec, and vinyl pools. The pool cleaner can clean the deeper debris in just a short period of time and therefore is of great advantage for the swimming pools which are used for professional use (the time however varies in each case and in case of larger pools the time taken is much more). There are suction style pool cleaners which are stylish and high-tech in their designs. It works silently through water. Some suction pool sharks (cleaners) can glide smoothly through water. The stubborn dirt is removed with the help of these cleaners.* Pool Bottom: There may be hard resin pool bottoms or cover pool bottoms. There are hardly any footprints in the pool bottom and the pool bottom is made in such way that nut grasses can grow there. There is no shifting of sand and it is very easy to install the hard resin pool bottom.* Sun pools are also available with the swimming pools. They are of great help especially for avoiding the scorching rays of the sun.* Pool equipment includes safety alarms, which are especially required when you have small children in your house. They start ringing when you cross the limit of the pool (where the actual lining is placed). It is especially essential for those houses where there is a vast swimming pool without guards and there are small children inside.* Swimming accessories also include swimwear which is of great importance. The swimwear includes both the men's wear and the women's wear. There are ladders which helps people to climb on to the top and dive into the swimming pool. This is a great fun for youngsters. Pool covers are mainly used to cover the pools and maintain the temperature of water even when it is extremely high or low outside.

https://www.getpoolrepair.pro/places-of-interest-rapid-city-pool-installation/

Swimming Pools For Sale In Rapid City Public Library 

South Dakota The Journey Museum and Gardens Pool Skimmer

Swimming Pool Service And Repair

When it relates to purchasing a pool in The Journey Museum and Gardens , many people must decide whether they would like an in-ground pool or an above ground pool. While both types of pools are popular, many people would opt for to have an in-ground pool. The only problem with in-ground pools is that they are regularly costly to afford. That signifies that if you’re the owner of an in-ground pool, it is probable that you would want to have the most out of your investment.

Cost To Build A Small Pool

Best Pool Cleaner In Places Of Interest Rapid City

This can be achieved by equipping your pool with popular pool accessories.When it relates to pool accessories in The Journey Museum and Gardens , there are a broad variety of different items that are viewed accessories. These things earn the name accessory because they are not included with the acquire of a pool; therefore, they has to be purchased on an individual basis. Irrespective of the fact that pool accessories require spending extra money, it is likely that you will like having them. The reason for this is there are literally an unlimited number of accessories to select from. With a selection so wide, you are likely to find precisely what you would like or need.When many individuals think about pool accessories, pool toys often come to mind. Currently, there are a huge number of pool toys that are accessible obtainable. Over and over, these toys are classified into two different categories. These categories are regularly affordable pool toys and expensive ones. If you’re searching for low-cost pool toys, you are not alone. Many pool owners enjoying having pool toys, but many don’t want to expend a huge amount of cash on them. If this is the situation, you may want to look into obtaining beach balls, swim rings, dive sticks, and other similar toys. Most of these matters can be obtained for fewer than.If price is not an issue, you may wish to stare into more expensive pool toys.

Inground Pool Prices Installed

7 Must-Haves For Pool Owners

Since ancient times, marble has always been a top favorite for home decor, countertops, and flooring. This is due to the reason that marbles symbolize splendor and refined taste. But no matter how sturdy cultured marbles are, they are still subjected to damages. Concrete Pool Repair Companies

Advanced Service Technician Training

In ground pools are most commonly seen in hotels and private villas and require thorough care and maintenance. You need to take care of your in ground swimming pool in order to keep it free from various algae and fungal infections. There are many accessories which are required for the care of in ground swimming pools. Some of them are the following:* Automatic pool cleaners: The automatic pool cleaners are essential for keeping your swimming pool free from various floating as well as submerged algae and fungi. The main advantage of the pool cleaner is that it can thoroughly clean the bottom of the pool. It can be used with plaster, fiberglass, pebble-tec, and vinyl pools. The pool cleaner can clean the deeper debris in just a short period of time and therefore is of great advantage for the swimming pools which are used for professional use (the time however varies in each case and in case of larger pools the time taken is much more). There are suction style pool cleaners which are stylish and high-tech in their designs. It works silently through water. Some suction pool sharks (cleaners) can glide smoothly through water. The stubborn dirt is removed with the help of these cleaners.* Pool Bottom: There may be hard resin pool bottoms or cover pool bottoms. There are hardly any footprints in the pool bottom and the pool bottom is made in such way that nut grasses can grow there. There is no shifting of sand and it is very easy to install the hard resin pool bottom.* Sun pools are also available with the swimming pools. They are of great help especially for avoiding the scorching rays of the sun.* Pool equipment includes safety alarms, which are especially required when you have small children in your house. They start ringing when you cross the limit of the pool (where the actual lining is placed). It is especially essential for those houses where there is a vast swimming pool without guards and there are small children inside.* Swimming accessories also include swimwear which is of great importance. The swimwear includes both the men's wear and the women's wear. There are ladders which helps people to climb on to the top and dive into the swimming pool. This is a great fun for youngsters. Pool covers are mainly used to cover the pools and maintain the temperature of water even when it is extremely high or low outside.

https://www.getpoolrepair.pro/places-of-interest-rapid-city-pool-installation/

Pool Cleaner In The Journey Museum and Gardens 

South Dakota South Dakota School of Mines and Technology Above Ground Pools

Robotic Pool Cleaner Prices

When it relates to purchasing a pool in South Dakota School of Mines and Technology , many people must decide whether they would like an in-ground pool or an above ground pool. While both types of pools are popular, many people would opt for to have an in-ground pool. The only problem with in-ground pools is that they are regularly costly to afford. That signifies that if you’re the owner of an in-ground pool, it is probable that you would want to have the most out of your investment.

Average Cost Of An Inground Swimming Pool

Best Pool Maintenance In Places Of Interest Rapid City

This can be achieved by equipping your pool with popular pool accessories.When it relates to pool accessories in South Dakota School of Mines and Technology , there are a broad variety of different items that are viewed accessories. These things earn the name accessory because they are not included with the acquire of a pool; therefore, they has to be purchased on an individual basis. Irrespective of the fact that pool accessories require spending extra money, it is likely that you will like having them. The reason for this is there are literally an unlimited number of accessories to select from. With a selection so wide, you are likely to find precisely what you would like or need.When many individuals think about pool accessories, pool toys often come to mind. Currently, there are a huge number of pool toys that are accessible obtainable. Over and over, these toys are classified into two different categories. These categories are regularly affordable pool toys and expensive ones. If you’re searching for low-cost pool toys, you are not alone. Many pool owners enjoying having pool toys, but many don’t want to expend a huge amount of cash on them. If this is the situation, you may want to look into obtaining beach balls, swim rings, dive sticks, and other similar toys. Most of these matters can be obtained for fewer than.If price is not an issue, you may wish to stare into more expensive pool toys.

Average Cost To Build An Inground Pool

Leak Detection Through Pipes And Side Walls In Pools

Your pool will naturally lose some water to evaporation, some to splash out and some to backwash waste-water. You may also gain water from rainfall. Our rule of thumb is that if you’re routinely adding more than two inches of water to your pool per week, you may have a leak. We will come out and do the initial inspection. We check to see if there are any obvious items that are contributing or causing the leak. We also check to see if we need any special equipment for the leak detection process. Once we complete the first inspection, we will give you a price on the leak detection ​We specialize in pool plumbing, spas, fountains and water features. Not only do we have the ability to find the problem, but fix it also. Average Cost To Build An Inground Pool

Swimming Pool

Jump to search Artificial container filled with water intended for swimming For other uses, see Swimming pool (disambiguation). Backyard swimming pool Olympic swimming pool and starting blocks used for the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, Australia A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or paddling pool is a structure designed to hold water to enable swimming or other leisure activities. Pools can be built into the ground (in-ground pools) or built above ground (as a freestanding construction or as part of a building or other larger structure), and are also a common feature aboard ocean-liners and cruise ships. In-ground pools are most commonly constructed from materials such as concrete, natural stone, metal, plastic or fiberglass, and can be of a custom size and shape or built to a standardized size, the largest of which is the Olympic-size swimming pool. Many health clubs, fitness centers and private clubs have pools used mostly for exercise or recreation. Many towns and cities provide public pools. Many hotels have pools available for their guests to use at their leisure. Educational facilities such as universities typically have pools for physical education classes, recreational activities, leisure or competitive athletics such as swimming teams. Hot tubs and spas are pools filled with hot water, used for relaxation or hydrotherapy, and are common in homes, hotels, and health clubs. Special swimming pools are also used for diving, specialized water sports, physical therapy as well as for the training of lifeguards and astronauts. Swimming pools may be heated or unheated. See also: History of water supply and sanitation Ancient Roman baths in Bath, England, UK The "Great Bath" at the site of Mohenjo-Daro in modern-day Pakistan was most likely the first swimming pool, dug during the 3rd millennium BC. This pool is 12 by 7 metres (39 by 23 feet), is lined with bricks, and was covered with a tar-based sealant.[1] Ancient Greeks and Romans built artificial pools for athletic training in the palaestras, for nautical games and for military exercises. Roman emperors had private swimming pools in which fish were also kept, hence one of the Latin words for a pool was piscina. The first heated swimming pool was built by Gaius Maecenas of Rome in the 1st century BC. Gaius Maecenas was a rich Roman lord and considered one of the first patrons of arts.[2] Ancient Sinhalese built pairs of pools called "Kuttam Pokuna" in the kingdom of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka in the 4th century BC. They were decorated with flights of steps, punkalas or pots of abundance, and scroll design.[3] Swimming pools became popular in Britain in the mid-19th century. As early as 1837, six indoor pools with diving boards existed in London, England.[4] The Maidstone Swimming Club in Maidstone, Kent is believed to be the oldest surviving swimming club in Britain. It was formed in 1844, in response to concerns over drownings in the River Medway, especially since would-be rescuers would often drown because they themselves could not swim to safety. The club used to swim in the River Medway, and would hold races, diving competitions and water polo matches. The South East Gazette July 1844 reported an aquatic breakfast party: coffee and biscuits were served on a floating raft in the river. The coffee was kept hot over a fire; club members had to tread water and drink coffee at the same time. The last swimmers managed to overturn the raft, to the amusement of 150 spectators.[5] The Amateur Swimming Association was founded in 1869 in England,[citation needed] and the Oxford Swimming Club in 1909.[6] The presence of indoor baths in the cobbled area of Merton Street might have persuaded the less hardy of the aquatic brigade to join. So, bathers gradually became swimmers, and bathing pools became swimming pools.[citation needed]. In 1939, Oxford created its first major public indoor pool at Temple Cowley. The modern Olympic Games started in 1896 and included swimming races, after which the popularity of swimming pools began to spread. In the US, the Racquet Club of Philadelphia clubhouse (1907) boasts one of the world's first modern above-ground swimming pools. The first swimming pool to go to sea on an ocean liner was installed on the White Star Line's Adriatic in 1906.[7] The oldest known public swimming pool in America, Underwood Pool, is located in Belmont, Massachusetts.[8] Interest in competitive swimming grew following World War I. Standards improved and training became essential. Home swimming pools became popular in the United States after World War II and the publicity given to swimming sports by Hollywood films such as Esther Williams' Million Dollar Mermaid made a home pool a desirable status symbol. More than 50 years later, the home or residential swimming pool is a common sight. Some small nations enjoy a thriving swimming pool industry (e.g., New Zealand pop. 4,116,900 [Source NZ Census 7 March 2006] – holds the record in pools per capita with 65,000 home swimming pools and 125,000 spa pools).[citation needed] A two-storey, white concrete swimming pool building composed of horizontal cubic volumes built in 1959 at the Royal Roads Military College is on the Registry of Historic Places of Canada.[9] Further information: List of largest swimming pools Moskva Pool, at one time the largest swimming pool in the world (1980) According to the Guinness World Records, the largest swimming pool in the world is San Alfonso del Mar Seawater pool in Algarrobo, Chile. It is 1,013 m (3,323 ft) long and has an area of 8 ha (20 acres). At its deepest, it is 3.5 m (11 ft) deep.[10] It was completed in December 2006.[11] The largest indoor wave pool in North America is at the West Edmonton Mall and the largest indoor pool is at the Neutral Buoyancy Lab in the Sonny Carter Training Facility at NASA JSC in Houston.[12][13] In 2014, the Y-40 swimming pool at the Hotel Terme Millepini in Padua, Italy became the deepest indoor pool, certified by the Guinness Book of World Records[14] The recreational diving center Nemo 33 near Brussels, Belgium previously held the record until the Y-40 was completed.[15] The Fleishhacker Pool in San Francisco was the largest heated outdoor swimming pool in the United States. Opened on 23 April 1925, it measured 1,000 by 150 ft (300 by 50 m) and was so large that the lifeguards required kayaks for patrol. It was closed in 1971 due to low patronage.[16] In Europe, the largest swimming pool opened in 1934 in Elbląg (Poland), providing a water area of 33,500 square metres (361,000 sq ft).[17] One of the largest swimming pools ever built was reputedly created in Moscow after the Palace of Soviets remained uncompleted. The foundations of the palace were converted into the Moskva Pool open-air swimming pool after the process of de-Stalinisation.[18] However, after the fall of communism, Christ the Saviour Cathedral was re-built on the site between 1995 and 2000; the cathedral had originally been located there.[citation needed] The highest swimming pool is believed to be in Yangbajain (Tibet, China). This resort is located at 4200 m AMSL and has two indoor swimming pools and one outdoor swimming pool, all filled with water from hot springs.[19] Cairns Lagoon, a public swimming pool in Australia Rooftop pool in Manhattan See: Competition pools (below) Length: Most pools in the world are measured in metres, but in the United States pools are often measured in feet and yards. In the UK most pools are calibrated in metres, but older pools measured in yards still exist. In the US, pools tend to either be 25 yards (SCY-short course yards), 25 metres (SCM-short course metres) or 50 metres (long course). US high schools and the NCAA conduct short course (25 yards) competition. There are also many pools 33⅓ m long, so that 3 lengths = 100 m. This pool dimension is commonly used to accommodate water polo.[citation needed] USA Swimming (USA-S) swims in both metric and non-metric pools. However, the international standard is metres, and world records are only recognized when swum in 50 m pools (or 25 m for short course) but 25-yard pools are very common in the US. In general, the shorter the pool, the faster the time for the same distance, since the swimmer gains speed from pushing off the wall after each turn at the end of the pool. Width: Most European pools are between 10 m and 50 m wide.[citation needed] Depth: The depth of a swimming pool depends on the purpose of the pool, and whether it is open to the public or strictly for private use. If it is a private casual, relaxing pool, it may go from 1.0 to 2.0 m (3.3 to 6.6 ft) deep. If it is a public pool designed for diving, it may slope from 3.0 to 5.5 m (10 to 18 ft) in the deep end. A children's play pool may be from 0.3 to 1.2 m (1 to 4 ft) deep. Most public pools have differing depths to accommodate different swimmer requirements. In many jurisdictions, it is a requirement to show the water depth with clearly marked depths affixed to the pool walls.[citation needed] Children playing in an above-ground pool Pools can be either indoors or outdoors. They can be of any size and shape, and inground or above ground. Most pools are permanent fixtures, while others are temporary, collapsible structures. Private pools are usually smaller than public pools, on average 3.7 m × 7.3 m (12 ft × 24 ft) to 6.1 m × 12.2 m (20 ft × 40 ft) whereas public pools usually start at 24 m (80 ft).[citation needed] Home pools can be permanently built-in, or be assembled above ground and disassembled after summer. Privately owned outdoor pools in backyards or gardens started to proliferate in the 1950s in regions with warm summer climates, particularly in the United States with desegregation.[20] Construction methods for private pools vary greatly. The main types of in-ground pools are gunite shotcrete, concrete, vinyl-lined, and one-piece fiberglass shells. Many countries now have strict pool fencing requirements for private swimming pools, which require pool areas to be isolated so that unauthorized children younger than six years cannot enter. Many countries require a similar level of protection for the children residing in or visiting the house, although many pool owners prefer the visual aspect of the pool in close proximity to their living areas, and will not provide this level of protection. There is no consensus between states or countries on the requirements to fence private swimming pools, and in many places they are not required at all, particularly in rural settings.[21] Inexpensive temporary polyvinyl chloride pools can be bought in supermarkets and taken down after summer. They are used mostly outdoors in yards, are typically shallow, and often their sides are inflated with air to stay rigid. When finished, the water and air can be let out and this type of pool can be folded up for convenient storage. They are regarded in the swimming pool industry as "splasher" pools intended for cooling off and amusing toddlers and children, not for swimming, hence the alternate name of "kiddie" pools.[citation needed] Toys are available for children and other people to play with in pool water. They are often blown up with air so they are soft but still reasonably rugged, and can float in water. Tooting Bec Lido, in South London Public pools are often part of a larger leisure centre or recreational complex. These centres often have more than one pool, such as an indoor heated pool, an outdoor (chlorinated, saltwater or ozonated) pool which may be heated or unheated, a shallower children's pool, and a paddling pool for toddlers and infants. There may also be a sauna and one or more hot tubs or spa pools ("jacuzzis"). Many upscale hotels and holiday resorts have a swimming pool for use by their guests. If a pool is in a separate building, the building may be called a natatorium. The building may sometimes also have facilities for related activities, such as a diving tank. Larger pools sometimes have a diving board affixed at one edge above the water. Many public swimming pools are rectangles 25 m or 50 m long, but they can be any size and shape. There are also elaborate pools with artificial waterfalls, fountains, splash pads, wave machines, varying depths of water, bridges, and island bars. Some swimming facilities have lockers for clothing and other belongings. The lockers can require a coin to be inserted in a slot, either as deposit or payment. There are usually showers - sometimes mandatory - before and/or after swimming. There are often also lifeguards to ensure the safety of users. Wading or paddling pools are shallow bodies of water intended for use by small children, usually in parks. Concrete wading pools come in many shapes, traditionally rectangle, square or circle. Some are filled and drained daily due to lack of a filter system. Staff chlorinate the water to ensure health and safety standards.[citation needed] Racing pool at the University of Minnesota A simplified diagram of the FINA long course swimming pool standard, used at the World Championships and Summer Olympics See: #Dimensions (above) and Swimming (sport)#Competition pools The Fédération Internationale de la Natation (FINA, International Swimming Federation) sets standards for competition pools: 25 or 50 m (82 or 164 ft) long and at least 1.35 m (4.4 ft) deep. Competition pools are generally indoors and heated to enable their use all year round, and to more easily comply with the regulations regarding temperature, lighting, and automatic officiating equipment. An Olympic-size swimming pool (first used at the 1924 Olympics) is a pool that meets FINA's additional standards for the Olympic Games and for world championship events. It must be 50 by 25 m (164 by 82 ft) wide, divided into eight lanes of 2.5 m (8.2 ft) each, plus two areas of 2.5 m (8.2 ft) at each side of the pool. Depth must be at least 2 m (6.6 ft).[22] The water must be kept at 25–28 °C (77–82 °F) and the lighting level at greater than 1500 lux. There are also regulations for color of lane rope, positioning of backstroke flags (5 metres from each wall), and so on.[22] Pools claimed to be "Olympic pools" do not always meet these regulations, as FINA cannot police use of the term. Touchpads are mounted on both walls for long course meets and each end for short course. A pool may be referred to as fast or slow, depending on its physical layout.[23] Some design considerations allow the reduction of swimming resistance making the pool faster: namely, proper pool depth, elimination of currents, increased lane width, energy absorbing racing lane lines and gutters, and the use of other innovative hydraulic, acoustic and illumination designs. In the last two decades, a new style of pool has gained popularity. These consist of a small vessel (usually about 2.5 × 5 m) in which the swimmer swims in place, either against the push of an artificially generated water current or against the pull of restraining devices. These pools have several names, such as swim spas, swimming machines, or swim systems. They are all examples of different modes of resistance swimming. A home spa A boy relaxing in a hot tub Hot tubs and spa pools are common heated pools used for relaxation and sometimes for therapy. Commercial spas are common in the swimming pool area or sauna area of a health club or fitness centre, in men's clubs, women's clubs, motels and exclusive five-star hotel suites. Spa clubs may have very large pools, some segmented into increasing temperatures. In Japan, men's clubs with many spas of different size and temperature are common. Commercial spas are generally made of concrete, with a mosaic tiled interior. More recently with the innovation of the pre-form composite method where mosaic tiles are bonded to the shell this enables commercial spas to be completely factory manufactured to specification and delivered in one piece. Hot tubs are typically made somewhat like a wine barrel with straight sides, from wood such as Californian redwood held in place by metal hoops. Immersion of the head is not recommended in spas or hot tubs due to a potential risk of underwater entrapment from the pump suction forces. However, commercial installations in many countries must comply with various safety standards which reduce this risk considerably. Home spas are a worldwide retail item in western countries since the 1980s, and are sold in dedicated spa stores, pool shops, department stores, the Internet, and catalog sales books. They are almost always made from heat-extruded acrylic sheet Perspex, often colored in marble look-alike patterns. They rarely exceed 6 m2 (65 sq ft) and are typically 1 m (3 ft 3 in) deep, restricted by the availability of the raw sheet sizes (typically manufactured in Japan). There is often a mid-depth seating or lounging system, and contoured lounger style reclining seats are common. Upmarket spas include various jet nozzles (massage, pulsating, etc.), a drinks tray, lights, LCD flat-screen TV sets and other features that make the pool a recreation center. Due to their family-oriented nature, home spas are normally operated from 36 to 39 °C (97 to 102 °F). Many pools are incorporated in a redwood or simulated wood surround, and are termed "portable" as they may be placed on a patio rather than sunken into a permanent location. Some portable spas are shallow and narrow enough to fit sideways through a standard door and be used inside a room. Low power electric immersion heaters are common with home spas. Whirlpool tubs first became popular in America during the 1960s and 1970s. A spa is also called a "jacuzzi" in USA since the word became a generic after plumbing component manufacturer Jacuzzi introduced the "spa whirlpool" in 1968. Air bubbles may be introduced into the nozzles via an air-bleed venturi pump that combines cooler air with the incoming heated water to cool the pool if the temperature rises uncomfortably high. Some spas have a constant stream of bubbles fed via the seating area of the pool, or a footwell area. This is more common as a temperature control device where the heated water comes from a natural (uncontrolled heat) geothermal source, rather than artificially heated. Water temperature is usually very warm to hot — 38 to 42 °C (100 to 108 °F), so bathers usually stay in for only 20 to 30 minutes. Bromine or mineral sanitizers are often recommended as sanitizers for spas because chlorine dissipates at a high temperature thereby heightening its strong chemical smell. Ozone is an effective bactericide and is commonly included in the circulation system with cartridge filtration, but not with sand media filtration due to clogging problems with turbid body fats. An ocean pool at Coogee in Sydney, Australia In the early 20th century, especially in Australia, ocean pools were built, typically on headlands by enclosing part of the rock shelf, with water circulated through the pools by flooding from tidal tanks or by regular flooding over the side of the pools at high tide. This continued a pre-European tradition of bathing in rockpools with many of the current sites being expanded from sites used by Aboriginal Australians or early European settlers. Bathing in these pools provided security against both rough surf and sea life. There were often separate pools for women and men, or the pool was open to the sexes at different times with a break for bathers to climb in without fear of observation by the other sex.[24] These were the forerunners of modern "Olympic" pools. A variation was the later development of sea- or harbour-side pools that circulated sea water using pumps. A pool of this type was the training ground for Australian Olympian Dawn Fraser. There are currently about 100 ocean baths in New South Wales, which can range from small pools roughly 25 metres long and "Olympic Sized" (50m) to the very large, such as the 50 × 100 m baths in Newcastle. While most are free, a number charge fees, such as the Bondi Icebergs Club pool at Bondi Beach. Despite the development of chlorinated and heated pools, ocean baths remain a popular form of recreation in New South Wales. A semi-natural ocean pool exists on the central coast of New South Wales; it is called The Bogey Hole. Infinity pool An infinity edge pool (also named negative edge or vanishing edge pool) is a swimming pool which produces a visual effect of water extending to the horizon, vanishing, or extending to "infinity". Often, the water appears to fall into an ocean, lake, bay, or other similar body of water. The illusion is most effective whenever there is a significant change in elevation, though having a natural body of water on the horizon is not a limiting factor.[citation needed] Natural pools were developed in central and western Europe in the early and mid-1980s by designers and landscape architects with environmental concerns. They have recently been growing in popularity as an alternative to traditional swimming pools.[25] Natural pools are constructed bodies of water in which no chemicals or devices that disinfect or sterilize water are used, and all the cleaning of the pool is achieved purely with the motion of the water through biological filters and plants rooted hydroponically in the system. In essence, natural pools seek to recreate swimming holes and swimmable lakes, the environment where people feel safe swimming in a non-polluted, healthy, and ecologically balanced body of water. Water in natural pools has many desirable characteristics. For example, red eyes, dried-out skin and hair, and bleached bathing suits associated with overly chlorinated water are naturally absent in natural pools.[citation needed] Natural pools, by requiring a water garden to be a part of the system, offer different aesthetic options and can support amphibious wildlife such as snails, frogs, and salamanders, and even small fish if desired. A zero-entry swimming pool, also called a beach entry swimming pool, is a swimming pool having an edge or entry that gradually slopes from the deck into the water, becoming deeper with each step, in the manner of a natural beach. As there are no stairs or ladders to navigate, this type of entry assists older people, young children and people with accessibility problems (e.g., people with a physical disability) where gradual entry is useful. Indoor pools are located inside, under a roof and insulated by at least three walls. Built for the purpose of year-round swimming or training, they are found in all climate types. Since the pool room is insulated, it is less likely the heat will escape; making it less expensive to heat than an outdoor pool where the heat will escape.[26] Architecturally, the indoor pool may look like the rest of the house, but in terms of engineering, variables such as heating and ventilation are required to ensure comfortable humidity levels. In addition to drainage and automatic pool covers, there are a number of ways to remove humidity in the air that is present with any wet indoor environment. Efficient dehumidification in the indoor pool environment prevents structural damage, lowers energy costs in addition to improving the room's climate to make it a comfortable swimming environment. An astronaut prepares to descend into a swimming pool as part of a training exercise. Swimming pools are also used for events such as synchronized swimming, water polo, canoe polo and underwater sports such as underwater hockey, underwater rugby, finswimming and sport diving as well as for teaching diving, lifesaving and scuba diving techniques. They have also been used for specialist tasks such as teaching water-ditching survival techniques for aircraft and submarine crews and astronaut training. Round-cornered, irregular swimming pools, such as the Nude Bowl, were drained of water and used for vertical skateboarding. Main article: Swimming pool sanitation Levels of bacteria and viruses in swimming pool water must be kept low to prevent the spread of diseases and pathogens. Bacteria, algae and insect larvae can enter the pool if water is not properly sanitized. Pumps, mechanical sand filters, and disinfectants are often used to sanitise the water. Chemical disinfectants, such as chlorine (usually as a hypochlorite salt, such as calcium hypochlorite) and bromine, are commonly used to kill pathogens. If not properly maintained, chemical sanitation can produce high levels of disinfection byproducts. Sanitized swimming pool water can theoretically appear green if a certain amount of iron salts or copper chloride are present in the water.[27] Acesulfame potassium has been used to estimate how much urine is discharged by swimmers into a pool.[28] In a Canadian study it was estimated that swimmers had released 75 litres of urine into a large pool that had about 830,000 litres of water and was a third of the size of an olympic pool. Hot tubs were found to have higher readings of the marker. While urine itself is sterile, its degradation products may lead to asthma.[28] Swimming pool heating costs can be significantly reduced by using a pool cover. Use of a pool cover also can help reduce the amount of chemicals (chlorine, etc.) required by the pool. Outdoor pools gain heat from the sun, absorbing 75–85% of the solar energy striking the pool surface. Though a cover decreases the total amount of solar heat absorbed by the pool, the cover eliminates heat loss due to evaporation and reduces heat loss at night through its insulating properties. Most swimming pool heat loss is through evaporation.[29] The heating effectiveness of a cover depends on type. A transparent bubble cover is the most effective, as it allows the largest amount of solar flux into the pool itself. Thermal bubble covers are lightweight UV-stabilized floating covers designed to minimize heat loss on heated swimming pools. Typically they are only fitted in spring and fall (autumn) when the temperature difference between pool water and air temperature is greatest. When used consistently they can raise average pool temperatures of an outdoor pool by around 18 °Fahrenheit (11 °Celsius) when combined with a well sized solar pool heating system, or about 11° Fahrenheit (6 °Celsius) without a solar heater but with full sun exposure.[30] Bubble covers are typically applied and removed by being rolled up on a device fitted to one side of the pool (see illustration). Covers fall apart after four or five years due to sun exposure, overheating in the sun while off the pool, and chlorine attacking the plastic. Bubble covers should be removed during super chlorination. A vinyl cover absorbs more sunlight directly, allowing temperature to rise faster, but ultimately prevents the pool from reaching as high a temperature as a clear cover.[31] Vinyl covers consist of a heavier material and have a longer life expectancy than bubble covers. Insulated vinyl covers are also available with a thin layer of flexible insulation sandwiched between two layers of vinyl.[31] These covers are mandatory[citation needed] to be fitted to all pools in areas of Australia that have experienced drought since 2006. This is an effort to conserve water, as much water evaporates and transpires. An alternative to a continuous sheet of pool covering is multiple floating disks which are deployed and removed disk by disk. They cover most of the surface of the pool and offer evaporation reduction similar to continuous covers. Various types are available, for example opaque (for UV resistance and possible reduced algal growth), transparent (for esthetics), heavy and solid (for wind resistance), light and inflatable (for ease of handling). Liquid covers Liquid covers are also an option. They use a microscopically thin layer of liquid (such as cetyl alcohol) that sits on the water surface and reduces evaporation, which is one of the major sources of heat loss as well as water loss. Unlike other covers, the pool can be used while the liquid cover is in place, and the nontoxic material is safe for people as well as pumping / filtering systems. The liquid must be replenished regularly (monthly or more), and may not be effective in windy areas (since the wind will disperse the thin layer). Safety covers These covers are typically attached all winter, by hooked bungee cords or hooked springs connected to the pool deck, and are usually made in a variety of materials including coated or laminated vinyl or polypropylene mesh. They are custom designed to stop leaf debris from entering the pool but more importantly they also provide safety for animals and small children when designed and installed properly. The custom safety cover was invented in 1957 by Fred Meyer Jr. of Meyco Pool Covers when he found a dead animal in his pool. Today covers are made to meet ASTM safety barrier standards and have kept animals, people and even large vehicles out of the pool. They are not popular in warmer climates, due to the five to ten minutes it takes to fit/remove them, making them inconvenient for repeated application and removal. Automatic pool cover A pool cover can be either manually, semi-automatically, or automatically operated. Manual covers can be folded and stored in an off site location. Pool cover reels can also be used to help manually roll up the pool cover. The reel, usually on wheels, can be rolled in or out of place. Semi-automatic covers use a motor-driven reel system. They use electrical power to roll and unroll the cover, but usually require someone to pull on the cover when unrolling, or guide the cover onto the reel when rolling up the cover. Semi-automatic covers can be built into the pool deck surrounding the pool, or can use reels on carts. Automatic covers have permanently mounted reels that automatically cover and uncover the pool at the push of a button. They are the most expensive option, but are also the most convenient. These reels can be run from either an external motor requiring a pit to be dug beside the pool or using an internal motor that spins the reel. Some pool covers fit into tracks along the sides of the pool. This prevents anything or anybody from getting into the pool. They even support the weight of several people. They can be run manually, semi-automatically, or automatically. Safety covers may be required by inspectors for public pools.[31] In areas which reach freezing temperature, it is important to close a pool properly. This varies greatly between in-ground and above-ground pools. By taking steps to properly secure the pool, it lessens the likelihood that the superstructure will be damaged or compromised by freezing water.[32] A rolled up Thermal Bubble pool cover, used to reduce water loss from evaporation and heat loss from the pool In preparation for freezing temperatures, an in-ground swimming pool's pipes must be emptied. An above-ground pool should also be closed, so that ice does not drag down the pool wall, collapsing its structure. The plumbing is sealed with air, typically with rubber plugs, to prevent cracking from freezing water. The pool is typically covered to prevent leaves and other debris from falling in. The cover is attached to the pool typically using a stretch cord, similar to a bungee cord and hooks fitted into the pool surround. The skimmer is closed off or a floating device is placed into it to prevent it from completely freezing and cracking. Floating objects such as life rings or basketballs can be placed in the pool to avoid its freezing under the cover. Sand or DE filters must be backwashed, with the main drain plug removed and all water drained out. Drain plugs on the pool filter are removed after the filter has been cleaned. The pool pump motor is taken under cover. Winter chemicals are added to keep the pool clean. The innovation of a composite construction of fibreglass, with an epoxy coating and porcelain ceramic tiles has led to the Pre-form, Composite-type with significant advantages over older methods; however, it also has increased sensitivity to metal staining. In climates where there is no risk of freezing, closing down the pool for winter is not so important. Typically, the thermal cover is removed and stored. Winter sunlight can create an algae mess when a cover that has been left on all winter is removed. The pool is correctly pH-balanced and super-chlorinated. One part algaecide for every 50,000 parts of pool water should be added, and topped up each month. The pool should be filtered for one to two hours daily to keep the automated chlorination system active.[citation needed] Pools pose a risk of drowning, which may be significant for swimmers who are inexperienced, suffer from seizures, or are susceptible to a heart or respiratory condition. Lifeguards are employed at most pools to execute water rescues and administer first aid as needed in order to reduce this risk. Diving in shallow areas of a pool may also lead to significant head and neck injuries; diving, especially head-first diving, should be done in the deepest point of the pool, minimally 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in), but desirably 3.7 m (12 ft), deeper if the distance between the water and the board is great. Pools also present a risk of death due to drowning, particularly in young children. In regions where residential pools are common, drowning is a major cause of childhood death. As a precaution, many jurisdictions require that residential pools be enclosed with fencing to restrict unauthorized access. Many products exist, such as removable baby fences. The evidence for floating alarms and window/door alarms to reduce the risk of drowning is poor.[33] Some pools are equipped with computer-aided drowning prevention or other forms of electronic safety and security systems. Suspended ceilings in indoor swimming pools are safety-relevant components. The selection of materials under tension should be done with care. Especially the selection of unsuitable stainless steels can cause problems with stress corrosion cracking.[34] Further information: Mixed bathing In public swimming pools, dress code may be stricter than on public beaches, and in indoor pools stricter than outdoor pools. For example, in countries where women can be topless on the beach, this is often not allowed in a swimming pool, and a swimsuit must be worn. For men, wearing ordinary shorts and a tee shirt to go in the water at a beach may be considered acceptable, but pools usually require real swim suits or other dedicated water wear. Swimming with regular clothes on is not only unhygienic,[citation needed] but can potentially weigh a swimmer down should he or she need to be rescued. In France and some other European countries, board shorts are usually not allowed for hygienic reasons. In Nordic countries and in particular Iceland, rules about clothing and hygiene are especially strict.[35] When diving from a high board, swim suits are sometimes worn doubled up (one brief inside another) in case the outer suit tears on impact with the water.

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When it relates to purchasing a pool in Berlin Wall in Memorial Park , many people must decide whether they would like an in-ground pool or an above ground pool. While both types of pools are popular, many people would opt for to have an in-ground pool. The only problem with in-ground pools is that they are regularly costly to afford. That signifies that if you’re the owner of an in-ground pool, it is probable that you would want to have the most out of your investment.

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This can be achieved by equipping your pool with popular pool accessories.When it relates to pool accessories in Berlin Wall in Memorial Park , there are a broad variety of different items that are viewed accessories. These things earn the name accessory because they are not included with the acquire of a pool; therefore, they has to be purchased on an individual basis. Irrespective of the fact that pool accessories require spending extra money, it is likely that you will like having them. The reason for this is there are literally an unlimited number of accessories to select from. With a selection so wide, you are likely to find precisely what you would like or need.When many individuals think about pool accessories, pool toys often come to mind. Currently, there are a huge number of pool toys that are accessible obtainable. Over and over, these toys are classified into two different categories. These categories are regularly affordable pool toys and expensive ones. If you’re searching for low-cost pool toys, you are not alone. Many pool owners enjoying having pool toys, but many don’t want to expend a huge amount of cash on them. If this is the situation, you may want to look into obtaining beach balls, swim rings, dive sticks, and other similar toys. Most of these matters can be obtained for fewer than.If price is not an issue, you may wish to stare into more expensive pool toys.

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Swimming is one of the activities that people do for fun and exercises. For effective and regular swimming one need to have a pool near probably in the home if possible. As one of the health activities that s recommended swimming should be done in a clean environment. A clean pool is recommended for healthy swimming. Maintaining the pool is, therefore, a must done service in order to ensure the health and safety of the swimmers as well as ensuring the durability of the pool. If the pool is left unclean for quite some time there are high risks of bacteria and algae harboring in the pool. Maintenance of the pool, therefore, requires one to have cleaners to assist in the service. Pool cleaner is a dual term that refers to both pool technicians and the automated cleaners. Cleaning is a very crucial activity that every pool owner should put into consideration. Cleaning of pool entails the whole process of getting rid of all debris as well as sediments from the floor, stairs and all throughout the walls. Clean pools are mostly preferred by many people for many reasons such as health and attractiveness among others. This makes every pool owner make cleaning a fundamental part to be observed. Choosing the best pool cleaner is another task that needs much attention of the owner. Depending on the effectiveness and cleaning time of removing dirt and debris from the pool, the type of pool cleaner required should be effective and time-saving. Before acquiring a pool cleaner one should consider several factors. Some of the factors are as highlighted below. Size of the pool   Effective cleaning of the pool depends on the size of the pool and therefore the owner should consider the same. The measurement of the pool is very important n deciding the best cleaner. The size defines the external handles especially when manual cleaning is involved. Large pools require pool cleaners with long handles hence automated pool cleaners are appropriate. The design of the pool as well defines the size of pool hence its accessibility requires an effective cleaner. Therefore the owner should consider the size before making any order of the cleaner. Amount of labor Maintenance of the pool requires some labor. The amount of labor defines the type of pool cleaner that should be acquired by the pool owner. If the owner need does not want to spend money hiring some manual labor the remaining option is to consider acquiring automated cleaner. This is because this automatic cleaner needs minimal supervision which the owner can manage to offer. On the other hand, manual pool cleaners require some energy hence labor hiring is paramount. Enough time, however, is required for manual work. Therefore depending on the owner's wish choosing best cleaner depends on the amount of labor required. Type of the surface of the pool The surface type of the pool matters a lot when choosing the appropriate type of cleaner. Surfaces are made of different materials like concrete, tile or fiberglass among others. A concrete or a vinyl surface cannot be damaged easily hence any cleaner s appropriate. As much as we say concrete and vinyl surfaces fit any cleaner, one should also consider the vulnerability of growth of algae. Therefore one needs to consider an effective pool cleaner. Fiberglass and tile surfaces require automatic cleaners which do not damage them during cleaning since they have delicate surfaces which can be broken easily. Additional accessories Depending on the amount of money the pool owner has and the exiting accessories the best pool cleaner can be chosen. Different types of cleaner perform their work either with additional accessories or on their own. Choosing the best cleaner, therefore, depends on the existing equipment. If the pool owner does not have additional accessories then should choose automatic cleaners which work on their own. If these additional accessories are available manual pool cleaners works best. However, consideration of the existing accessories, therefore, helps the owner to choose the best pool cleaner. Type of the pool Another major factor to be considered is the type of pool. Before buying a pool cleaner one has to know the kind of pool defined as either above ground or an in-ground pool. The materials that are used to make these two distinct pools are much different hence deciding on the best type of the pool cleaner is very important. Different pool cleaners perform well on either the in-ground or above ground pool. The efficiency of the cleaner Performance of every cleaner is measured in terms of effectiveness and efficiency. The amount of time that a cleaner takes to clean a pool defines the efficiency. Measuring the efficiency of the cleaner, therefore, helps the pool owner to decide the best type of cleaner to use. Small pools require a short time to be completely cleaned hence manual cleaners do the work effectively. On the contrary large pools require automated pool cleaners for efficient cleaning. Simplicity   Choosing the best pool cleaner also depends on how every cleaner is used. Depending on the amount of work required one may opt for an automated pool cleaner since it is the easiest to use. This is because it requires less job as it is automatic. Price and maintenance cost Another important factor is the price of the cleaner. The amount of finance the owner has helped to determine an affordable pool cleaner. However, the owner should consider the cost of maintenance of the cleaner. In this case, one should choose a cleaner with the lowest maintenance cost as well as a durable one. Keeping the swimming pool clean is the best thing when it comes to the maintenance of the pool. Many pool owners consider the task as such difficult but with the right cleaner and regular cleaning, maintenance becomes easier. Choosing the best cleaner depends on a number of factors as explained above. For the case of first-time pool owners, they should consult friends and other relevant agencies for more information about the best cleaners. Average Price Of Inground Pool

Pool Management & Lifeguard Services

Your pool will naturally lose some water to evaporation, some to splash out and some to backwash waste-water. You may also gain water from rainfall. Our rule of thumb is that if you’re routinely adding more than two inches of water to your pool per week, you may have a leak. We will come out and do the initial inspection. We check to see if there are any obvious items that are contributing or causing the leak. We also check to see if we need any special equipment for the leak detection process. Once we complete the first inspection, we will give you a price on the leak detection ​We specialize in pool plumbing, spas, fountains and water features. Not only do we have the ability to find the problem, but fix it also.

https://www.getpoolrepair.pro/places-of-interest-rapid-city-pool-installation/

Swimming Pool Design In Berlin Wall in Memorial Park 

South Dakota Watiki Waterpark Pool Installation

Build Your Own Inground Pool

When it relates to purchasing a pool in Watiki Waterpark , many people must decide whether they would like an in-ground pool or an above ground pool. While both types of pools are popular, many people would opt for to have an in-ground pool. The only problem with in-ground pools is that they are regularly costly to afford. That signifies that if you’re the owner of an in-ground pool, it is probable that you would want to have the most out of your investment.

Best Pool Cleaners For Inground Pools

Best Outdoor Pool In Places Of Interest Rapid City

This can be achieved by equipping your pool with popular pool accessories.When it relates to pool accessories in Watiki Waterpark , there are a broad variety of different items that are viewed accessories. These things earn the name accessory because they are not included with the acquire of a pool; therefore, they has to be purchased on an individual basis. Irrespective of the fact that pool accessories require spending extra money, it is likely that you will like having them. The reason for this is there are literally an unlimited number of accessories to select from. With a selection so wide, you are likely to find precisely what you would like or need.When many individuals think about pool accessories, pool toys often come to mind. Currently, there are a huge number of pool toys that are accessible obtainable. Over and over, these toys are classified into two different categories. These categories are regularly affordable pool toys and expensive ones. If you’re searching for low-cost pool toys, you are not alone. Many pool owners enjoying having pool toys, but many don’t want to expend a huge amount of cash on them. If this is the situation, you may want to look into obtaining beach balls, swim rings, dive sticks, and other similar toys. Most of these matters can be obtained for fewer than.If price is not an issue, you may wish to stare into more expensive pool toys.

Cost To Build A Small Pool

Swimming Pool

You may be stunned at the absolutely tranquil, beautiful, inviting and certainly anything - but - ordinary styles of pools, you can find on the market today. You may see something great for your back yard, front yard or garden that you may have never considered before. There are many different kinds of pools, spools, spas, ponds and more that are great ideas for enhancing the ambiance of your home outdoors and to simply have more fun there! Aside from the pool itself, there will be all kinds of supplies specifically for pools that you will need. Just as the type of pool (which you decide to build or to have someone build for you) will be carefully determined, the pool supplies you use will with and for your pool be determined by the kind of pool you have and the manner in which it is primarily to be used.Ultimately your choice will depend on a compilation of many different factors, mostly unique to your home property (or the property on which you plan to build). You should choose the perfect pool best designed to best suit the purpose for which you want it. For example: to entertain children, for lounging in the sun, for diving, swimming laps, or as a beautiful, soothing and cooling part of the overall landscape. In basic summation: your pool design should be based on personal taste, the primary function of the pool, budget, the space that is there and available for you to work with, and who (i.e. what age groups) will be mostly using the pool, etc. The last on this list of things to consider is very important for you to remember: because it has to do with safety and will dictate the different pool supplies you will need as well.Even if the perfect home pool is, in your imagination right now, a cascading free-form pool, there can be jagged rocks (and often are) or other hazards especially dangerous for smaller kids. A safety fence or any other kind of fencing simply clashes with the ambiance of a free-form pool. Therefore, people with small kids, or whose pool will often accommodate small kids, may not want to get a free-form pool installed - even if it was the original idea. The good news is that with all the sorts of pools that are now available to purchase, you can beautify your home and enrich your experiences through the sunny days at home with a soothing outdoor pool. No matter what kind of pool you want, you will need certain pool supplies, and land requirements must be met. Find out what is available and make the very best decision for you and your friends and family.Essential pool supplies required for any pool you choose no matter what type, style or size, will be chemicals for the maintenance of safe and clean water in which to swim, dive, lounge or play. Of course, the amount of chemicals used in a certain pool may be very different than the amount of chemicals used in another kind of pool. If there is less water, for example, you will not need as much chlorine and other chemicals than if you have a much larger pool primarily used for laps, perhaps, and frequently used. Any kind of pool, even a reflecting pool or a pond, will also need a filter to pump the water and keep it continuously circulating. Believe it or not, this is a requirement for a free-form pool (usually a waterfall helps as part of the filtration / pumping system), or reflecting pools. Even if the pool or pond used for fish, water plants and as a habitat for other wildlife, the water must not be without some kind of filtration system. Factor these necessities into your budget if you want to purchase a pool for your yard or garden.As a rule, fences are almost always a good idea no matter what type of pool you have. This does not, however, mean that the fence has to surround the pool closely like it would at a park or public swim area. Nonetheless, even if you do not have children of your own, and the law does not require a fence, it is safe and helpful to your neighbors and your community to build a physical boundary around your property. This is a sure way to prevent tragedies such as the drowning of neighborhood children who wander into your yard, or to prevent vandalism or other damage by teenagers who decide to go "pool hopping" in rich neighborhoods at night. Primary targets of such reckless youthful activities have proven to be homes with heated pools, or even just with hot tubs in the yard.If you are building your own pool, there are pool kits available to help you. However, often they will not include some of the things you will need. Sometimes it is actually less expensive to purchase instructions and pool building supplies such as concrete mix separately. Certain pools really can not be accomplished to achieve the desired effect without having an expert take over the building and design. Other kinds of pools, however, are incredibly simple to build on your own (without special training), if you have the ability and ambition.Then there are the fun pool supplies! These are the types of pool supplies you think of when someone says the words "pool supplies." Pool sheds, noodles, rafts, water wings, lounge chairs, patio furniture, and more are among the many pool supplies that many people want or need to keep on-hand. Technically, these qualify as more pool accessories than pool supplies - but if they are things you really want for the purpose of enjoying your overall outdoor experience, the term is close enough. Swimming Pool Construction Details

Leak Detection Through Pipes And Side Walls In Pools

Swimming pool sanitation is the process of ensuring healthy conditions in swimming pools. Proper sanitation is needed to maintain the visual clarity of water and to prevent the transmission of infectious waterborne diseases. Two distinct and separate methods are employed in the sanitation of a swimming pool. The consecutive dilution system to allow the removal of organic waste on a daily basis by using the sieve baskets inside the skimmer and circulation pump and the sand unit with a backwash facility for easy removal of organic waste from the water circulation. Disinfection normally in the form of Hypochlorous acid (HClO) to kill infectious microorganisms. Alongside these two distinct measures within the pool owners jurisdiction, swimmer hygiene and cleanliness helps reduce organic waste build up. The World Health Organization has published international guidelines for the safety of swimming pools and similar recreational-water environments, including standards for minimizing microbial and chemical hazards.[1] The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also provides information on pool sanitation and water related illnesses for health professionals and the public.[2] The main organizations providing certifications for pool and spa operators and technicians are the National Swimming Pool Foundation and Association of Pool & Spa Professionals. The certifications are accepted by many state and local health departments.[3] Swimming pool contaminants are introduced from environmental sources and swimmers. Affecting primarily outdoor swimming pools, environmental contaminants include windblown dirt and debris, incoming water from unsanitary sources, rain containing microscopic algae spores and droppings from birds possibly harbouring disease-causing pathogens.[4] Indoor pools are less susceptible to environmental contaminants. Contaminants introduced by swimmers can dramatically influence the operation of indoor and outdoor swimming pools. Sources include micro-organisms from infected swimmers and body oils including sweat, cosmetics, suntan lotion, urine, saliva and fecal matter; for example, it was estimated by researchers that swimming pools contain, on average, 30 to 80 mL of urine for each person that uses the pool.[5] In addition, the interaction between disinfectants and pool water contaminants can produce a mixture of chloramines and other disinfection by-products. The journal Environmental Science & Technology reported that sweat and urine react with chlorine and produce trichloramine and cyanogen chloride, two chemicals dangerous to human health. [1] Nitrosamines are another type of the disinfection by-products that are of concern as a potential health hazard.[6]Acesulfame potassium is widely used in the human diet and excreted by the kidneys. It has been used by researchers as a marker to estimate to what degree swimming pools are contaminated by urine.[6] It was estimated that a commercial-size swimming pool of 220,000 gallons would contain about 20 gallons of urine, equivalent to about 2 gallons of urine in a typical residential pool.[6]Pathogenic contaminants are of greatest concern in swimming pools as they have been associated with numerous recreational water illnesses (RWIs).[7] Public health pathogens can be present in swimming pools as viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi. Diarrhea is the most commonly reported illness associated with pathogenic contaminants, while other diseases associated with untreated pools are Cryptosporidiosis and Giardiasis.[8][9] Other illnesses commonly occurring in poorly maintained swimming pools include otitis externa, commonly called swimmers ear, skin rashes and respiratory infections. Contamination can be minimized by good swimmer hygiene practices such as showering before and after swimming, and not letting children with intestinal disorders swim. Effective treatments are needed to address contaminants in pool water because preventing the introduction of pool contaminants, pathogenic and non-pathogenic, into swimming pools is impossible. A well-maintained, properly operating pool filtration and re-circulation system is the first barrier in combating contaminants large enough to be filtered. Rapid removal of filterable contaminants reduces the impact on the disinfection system thereby limiting the formation of chloramines, restricting the formation of disinfection by-products and optimizing sanitation effectiveness. To kill pathogens and help prevent recreational water illnesses, pool operators must maintain proper levels of chlorine or another sanitizer.[10][11]Over time, calcium from municipal water tends to accumulate, developing salt deposits in the swimming pool walls and equipment (filters, pumps), reducing their effectiveness. Therefore, it is advised to either completely drain the pool, and refill it with fresh water, or recycle the existing pool water, using reverse osmosis. The advantage of the latter method is that 90% of the water can be reused. Pool operators must also store and handle cleaning and sanitation chemicals safely. Disease prevention should be the top priority for every water quality management program for pool and spa operators. Disinfection is critical to protect against pathogens, and is best managed through routine monitoring and maintenance of chemical feed equipment to ensure optimum chemical levels in accordance with state and local regulations.[12]Modern digital equipment when used in conjunction with automatic chemical feeders results in stable pH and chlorine levels. Local jurisdiction may demand a wait time if chemicals are added by hand to the water so that swimmers are not injured. Chemical parameters include disinfectant levels according to regulated pesticide label directions. pH should be kept between 7.2-7.8. Human tears have a pH of 7.4, making this an ideal point to set a pool.[13] More often than not, it is improper pH and not the sanitiser that is responsible for irritating swimmers' skin and eyes. Total alkalinity should be 80-120 ppm and calcium hardness between 200 – 400 ppm.[14]Good hygienic behavior at swimming pools is also important for reducing health risk factors at swimming pools and spas. Showering before swimming can reduce introduction of contaminants to the pool, and showering again after swimming will help to remove any that way have been picked up by the swimmer. Those with diarrhea or other gastroenteritis illnesses should not swim within 2 weeks of an outbreak, especially children. Cryptosporidium is chlorine resistant.[15]To minimize exposure to pathogens, swimmers should avoid getting water into their mouths and never swallow pool or spa water.[16] Maintaining an effective concentration of disinfectant is critically important in assuring the safety and health of swimming pool and spa users. When any of these pool chemicals are used, it is very important to keep the pH of the pool in the range 7.2 to 7.8-according to the Langelier Saturation Index, or 7.8 to 8.2- according to the Hamilton Index; higher pH drastically reduces the sanitizing power of the chlorine due to reduced oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), while lower pH causes bather discomfort, especially to the eyes. However, according to the Hamilton Index, a higher pH can reduce unnecessary chlorine consumption while still remaining effective at preventing algae and bacteria growth. To help ensure the health of bathers and protect pool equipment, it is essential to perform routine monitoring of water quality factors (or "parameters") on a regular basis. This process becomes the essence of an optimum water quality management program. Conventional halogen-based oxidizers such as chlorine and bromine are convenient and economical primary sanitizers for swimming pools and provide a residual level of sanitizer that remains in the water. Chlorine-releasing compounds are the most popular and frequently used in swimming pools whereas bromine-releasing compounds have found heightened popularity in spas and hot tubs. Both are members of the halogen group with demonstrated ability to destroy and deactivate a wide range of potentially dangerous bacteria and viruses in swimming pools and spas. Both exhibit three essential elements as ideal first-line-of-defense sanitizers for swimming pools and spas: they are fast-acting and enduring, they are effective algaecides, and they oxidize undesired contaminants. Swimming pools can be disinfected with a variety of chlorine-releasing compounds. The most basic of these compounds is molecular chlorine (Cl2); however, its application is primarily in large commercial public swimming pools. Inorganic forms of chlorine-releasing compounds frequently used in residential and public swimming pools include sodium hypochlorite commonly known as liquid bleach or simply bleach, calcium hypochlorite and lithium hypochlorite. Chlorine residuals from Cl2 and inorganic chlorine-releasing compounds break down rapidly in sunlight. To extend their disinfectant usefulness and persistence in outdoor settings, swimming pools treated with one or more of the inorganic forms of chlorine-releasing compounds can be supplemented with cyanuric acid—a granular stabilizing agent capable of extending the active chlorine residual half-life (t½) by four to sixfold.[17] Chlorinated isocyanurates, a family of organic chlorine-releasing compounds, are stabilized to prevent UV degradation due to the presence of cyanurate as part of their chemical backbone. Chlorine reacting with urea in urine and other nitrogen-containing wastes from bathers can produce chloramines. Chloramines typically occur when an insufficient amount of chlorine is used to disinfect a contaminated pool. Chloramines are generally responsible for the noxious, irritating smell prominently occurring in indoor pool settings. A common way to remove chloramines is to "superchlorinate" (commonly called "shocking") the pool with a high dose of inorganic chlorine sufficient to deliver 10 ppm chlorine. Regular superchlorination (every two weeks in summer) helps to eliminate these unpleasant odors in the pool. Levels of chloramines and other volatile compounds in water can be minimized by reducing contaminants that lead to their formation (e.g., urea, creatinine, amino acids and personal care products) as well as by use of non-chlorine "shock oxidizers" such as potassium peroxymonosulfate. Medium pressure UV technology is used to control the level of chloramines in indoor pools. It is also used as a secondary form of disinfection to address chlorine tolerant pathogens. A properly sized and maintained UV system should remove the need to shock for chloramines, although shocking would still be used to address a fecal accident in the pool. UV will not replace chlorine, but is used to control the level of chloramines, which are responsible for the odor, irritation, and enhanced corrosion at an indoor pool. Copper ion systems use a low voltage current across copper bars (solid copper, or a mixture of copper and zinc or silver) to free copper ions into the flow of pool water to kill organisms such as algae in the water and provide a "residual" in the water. Alternative systems also use titanium plates to produce oxygen in the water to help degrade organic compounds. An electrically operated water pump is the prime motivator in recirculating the water from the pool. Water is forced through a filter and then returned to the pool. Using a water pump by itself is often not sufficient to completely sanitize a pool. Commercial and public pool pumps usually run 24 hours a day for the entire operating season of the pool. Residential pool pumps are typical run for 4 hours per day in winter (when the pool is not in use) and up to 24 hours in summer. To save electricity costs, most pools run water pumps for between 6 hours and 12 hours in summer with the pump being controlled by an electronic timer. Most pool pumps available today incorporate a small filter basket as the last effort to avoid leaf or hair contamination reaching the close-tolerance impeller section of the pump. A pressure-fed sand filter is typically placed in line immediately after the water pump. The filter typically contains a medium such as graded sand (called '14/24 Filter Media' in the UK system of grading the size of sand by sifting through a fine brass-wire mesh of 14 to the inch (5.5 per centimeter) to 24 to the inch (9.5 per cm)). A pressure fed sand filter is termed a 'High Rate' sand filter, and will generally filter turbid water of particulates no less than 10 micrometers in size.[18] The rapid sand filter type are periodically 'back washed' as contaminants reduce water flow and increase back pressure. Indicated by a pressure gauge on the pressure side of the filter reaching into the 'red line' area, the pool owner is alerted to the need to 'backwash' the unit. The sand in the filter will typically last five to seven years before all the "rough edges" are worn off and the more tightly packed sand no longer works as intended. Recommended filtration for public/commercial pools are 1 ton sand per 100,000 liters water (10 ounces avdp. per cubic foot of water) [7.48 US or 6.23 UK gallons]. Introduced in the early 1900s was another type of sand filter; the 'Rapid Sand' filter, whereby water was pumped into the top of a large volume tank (3' 0" or more cube) (1 cubic yard/200US gal/170UK gal/770 liters) containing filter grade sand, and returning to the pool through a pipe at the bottom of the tank. As there is no pressure inside this tank, they were also known as 'gravity filters'. These type of filters are not greatly effective, and are no longer common in home swimming pools, being replaced by the pressure-fed type filter. Some filters use diatomaceous earth to help filter out contaminants. Commonly referred to as 'D.E.' filters, they exhibit superior filtration capabilities.[19] Often a D.E. filter will trap waterborne contaminants as small as 1 micrometer in size. D.E. filters are banned in some states, as they must be emptied out periodically and the contaminated media flushed down the sewer, causing a problem in some districts' sewage systems. Other filter media that have been introduced to the residential swimming pool market since 1970 include sand particles and paper type cartridge filters of 50 to 150 square feet (14 m2) filter area arranged in a tightly packed 12" diameter x 24" long (300 mm x 600 mm) accordion-like circular cartridge. These units can be 'daisy-chained' together to collectively filter almost any size home pool. The cartridges are typically cleaned by removal from the filter body and hosing-off down a sewer connection. They are popular where backwashed water from a sand filter is not allowed to be discharged or goes into the aquifer.   Automated pool cleaner Automated pool cleaners more commonly known as "Automatic pool cleaners" and in particular electric, robotic pool cleaners provide an extra measure of filtration, and in fact like the handheld vacuums can microfilter a pool, which a sand filter without flocculation or coagulalents is unable to accomplish [20]These cleaners are independent from the pool's main filter and pump system and are powered by a separate electricity source, usually in the form of a set-down transformer that is kept at least 10 feet (3.0 m) from the water in the pool, often on the pool deck. They have two internal motors: one to suck in water through a self-contained filter bag and then return the filtered water at a high rate of speed back into the pool water. The second is a drive motor that is connected to tractor-like rubber or synthetic tracks and "brushes" connected by rubber or plastic bands via a metal shaft. The brushes, resembling paint rollers, are located on the front and back of the machine and help remove contaminating particles from the pool's floor, walls (and in some designs even the pool steps) depending on size and configuration. They also direct the particles into the internal filter bag.[21][22] Saline chlorination units, electronic oxidation systems, ionization systems, microbe disinfection with ultra-violet lamp systems, and "Tri-Chlor Feeders" are other independent or auxiliary systems for swimming pool sanitation. A consecutive dilution system is arranged to consecutively remove organic waste that has been skimmed from the surface of the water. The surface water is pulled through the skimmer mouth where large organic waste is trapped inside the skimmer basket sieve. Each sieve basket reduces in mesh size to dilute the size of the contaminant as it passes through the consecutive dilution system. Dilution defines as the action of making something weaker in force, content, or value. The second consecutive sieve basket is attached to the circulation pump. Here the 25% of water drawn from the main drain at the bottom of the swimming pool meets the 75% of water drawn from the surface of the water. The circulation pumps sieve basket is easily accessible by the pool owner to be emptied daily. The third consecutive sieve is the sand unit. Here smaller organic waste that has slipped through the previous consecutive sieves is trapped by the sand. If not removed regularly the organic waste will continue to rot down and leech into the water. Through this dilution process it allows the organic waste to be easily removed via the sieve baskets and ultimately to be back washed to remove smaller organic waste trapped in the sand sieve to stop it leeching ammonia and other compounds into the recirculated water causing (DBP's). The sieve baskets are easily removed daily for cleaning as is the sand unit which should be back washed at least once a week. With a perfectly maintained consecutive dilution system the build up of Chloramines and other disinfection bye products(DBP's) can be drastically reduced. The water returned to the pool should have been sieved of all organic waste above 10 microns. Water is typically drawn from the pool via a rectangular aperture in the wall, connected through to a device fitted into one (or more) wall/s of the pool. The internals of the skimmer are accessed from the pool deck through a circular or rectangle lid, about one foot in diameter. If the pool's water pump is operational water is drawn from the pool over a floating hinged weir (operating from a vertical position to 90 degrees angle away from the pool, in order to stop leaves and debris being back-flooded into the pool by wave action), and down into a removable "skimmer basket", the purpose of which is to entrap leaves, dead insects and other larger floating debris. The aperture visible from the pool side is typically 1' 0" (300 mm) wide by 6" (150 mm) high, which intersects the water midway though the center of the aperture. Skimmers with apertures wider than this are termed "wide angle" skimmers and may be as much as 2' 0" wide (600 mm). Floating skimmers have the advantage of not being affected by the level of the water as these are adjusted to work with the rate of pump suction and will retain optimum skimming regardless of water level leading to a markedly reduced amount of bio-material in the water. Skimmers should always have a leaf basket or filter between it and the pump to avoid blockages in the pipes leading to the pump and filter. The water returning to the pool from the consecutive dilution system is passed through return jets below the surface of the water. The return jets are designed to impact a turbulent flow as the water enters the pool. This turbulent flow as a force is far less than the mass of the water in the pool and the turbulent flow takes the least pressure route to the surface where surface tension reforms it into a laminar flow on the surface water. As the returned water disturbs the water surface it creates a capillary wave. The capillary wave if the return jets are positioned correctly creates a circular motion within the surface tension of the water allowing the surface water to slowly circulate around the pool walls. Organic waste floating on the surface through this circulation from the capillary wave is slowly drawn passed the mouth of the skimmer where it is pulled in due to the laminar flow and surface tension over the skimmer weir. In a well designed pool this circulation caused by the disturbed returned water aids in removing organic waste from the pools surface to be trapped inside the consecutive dilution system for easy disposal. Many return jets are equipped with a swivel nozzle which if used correctly will further induce a circulation in the depths of the water further cleaning the pool. When the jet nozzles are turned to one direction e.g. both to the right an anti clockwise rotation within the whole depth of pool water will exist. If turned to the left it will create a clockwise movement within the depths of the water. This rotation has the benefit of cleaning the bottom of the pool and slowly moving sunken inorganic debris to the main drain where the debris is removed by the circulation pump basket sieve. In a correctly constructed pool this rotation of the water caused by the return water from the consecutive dilution system will reduce or even remove the need to hoover the bottom of the pool. To gain the maximum rotation force on the main body of water the consecutive dilution system needs to be as clean and unblocked as possible to allow maximum flow pressure from the pump. As the water rotates it also disturbs organic waste in the lower water layers and forces it to the top of the pool water. This rotational force the pool return jets create is the most important part of cleaning the pool water and pushing organic waste across the mouth of the skimmer. With a correctly designed and operated swimming pool this circulation can be seen and after a period of time the circulation will reach even the deep end and impart a low velocity vortex above the main drain due to suction. Correct use of the return jets is the most effective way of removing disinfection bye products caused by decomposing organic waste from the water depths and pulling it into the consecutive dilution system for immediate disposal. Other equipment which may be optioned in the recirculation system include pool water heaters. They can be heat pumps, natural gas or propane gas heaters, electric heaters, wood burning heaters, or Solar hot water panel heaters - increasingly used in the sustainable design of pools. Diversions to electronic oxidation systems, ionization systems, microbe disinfectinon with ultra-violet lamp systems, and "Tri-Chlor Feeders" are other auxiliary systems for Swimming pool sanitation; as well as solar panels; are in most cases required to be placed after the filtration equipment, and are the last items before the water is returned to the pool. Features that are part of the water circulation system can extend treatment capacity needs for sizing calculations and can include: artificial streams and waterfalls, in-pool fountains, integrated hot tubs and spas, water slides and sluices, artificial "pebble beaches", submerged seating as bench-ledges or as "stools" at in-pool bars, plunge pools, and shallow children's wading pools.

https://www.getpoolrepair.pro/places-of-interest-rapid-city-pool-installation/

Outdoor Pool In Watiki Waterpark 

South Dakota Storybook Island Pool Chemicals

Swimming Pool Installation

When it relates to purchasing a pool in Storybook Island , many people must decide whether they would like an in-ground pool or an above ground pool. While both types of pools are popular, many people would opt for to have an in-ground pool. The only problem with in-ground pools is that they are regularly costly to afford. That signifies that if you’re the owner of an in-ground pool, it is probable that you would want to have the most out of your investment.

Inground Pool Skimmer Leak Repair

Best Swimming Pool Design In Places Of Interest Rapid City

This can be achieved by equipping your pool with popular pool accessories.When it relates to pool accessories in Storybook Island , there are a broad variety of different items that are viewed accessories. These things earn the name accessory because they are not included with the acquire of a pool; therefore, they has to be purchased on an individual basis. Irrespective of the fact that pool accessories require spending extra money, it is likely that you will like having them. The reason for this is there are literally an unlimited number of accessories to select from. With a selection so wide, you are likely to find precisely what you would like or need.When many individuals think about pool accessories, pool toys often come to mind. Currently, there are a huge number of pool toys that are accessible obtainable. Over and over, these toys are classified into two different categories. These categories are regularly affordable pool toys and expensive ones. If you’re searching for low-cost pool toys, you are not alone. Many pool owners enjoying having pool toys, but many don’t want to expend a huge amount of cash on them. If this is the situation, you may want to look into obtaining beach balls, swim rings, dive sticks, and other similar toys. Most of these matters can be obtained for fewer than.If price is not an issue, you may wish to stare into more expensive pool toys.

Concrete Pool Restoration

Swimming Pool

The hot weather is just around the corner and you have made the decision that you want a swimming pool. It goes without saying that you want a quality job, done by a reliable pool contractor. But where do you start? Inground Pool Installation Near Me

Pool Management & Lifeguard Services

Jump to search Artificial container filled with water intended for swimming For other uses, see Swimming pool (disambiguation). Backyard swimming pool Olympic swimming pool and starting blocks used for the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, Australia A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or paddling pool is a structure designed to hold water to enable swimming or other leisure activities. Pools can be built into the ground (in-ground pools) or built above ground (as a freestanding construction or as part of a building or other larger structure), and are also a common feature aboard ocean-liners and cruise ships. In-ground pools are most commonly constructed from materials such as concrete, natural stone, metal, plastic or fiberglass, and can be of a custom size and shape or built to a standardized size, the largest of which is the Olympic-size swimming pool. Many health clubs, fitness centers and private clubs have pools used mostly for exercise or recreation. Many towns and cities provide public pools. Many hotels have pools available for their guests to use at their leisure. Educational facilities such as universities typically have pools for physical education classes, recreational activities, leisure or competitive athletics such as swimming teams. Hot tubs and spas are pools filled with hot water, used for relaxation or hydrotherapy, and are common in homes, hotels, and health clubs. Special swimming pools are also used for diving, specialized water sports, physical therapy as well as for the training of lifeguards and astronauts. Swimming pools may be heated or unheated. See also: History of water supply and sanitation Ancient Roman baths in Bath, England, UK The "Great Bath" at the site of Mohenjo-Daro in modern-day Pakistan was most likely the first swimming pool, dug during the 3rd millennium BC. This pool is 12 by 7 metres (39 by 23 feet), is lined with bricks, and was covered with a tar-based sealant.[1] Ancient Greeks and Romans built artificial pools for athletic training in the palaestras, for nautical games and for military exercises. Roman emperors had private swimming pools in which fish were also kept, hence one of the Latin words for a pool was piscina. The first heated swimming pool was built by Gaius Maecenas of Rome in the 1st century BC. Gaius Maecenas was a rich Roman lord and considered one of the first patrons of arts.[2] Ancient Sinhalese built pairs of pools called "Kuttam Pokuna" in the kingdom of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka in the 4th century BC. They were decorated with flights of steps, punkalas or pots of abundance, and scroll design.[3] Swimming pools became popular in Britain in the mid-19th century. As early as 1837, six indoor pools with diving boards existed in London, England.[4] The Maidstone Swimming Club in Maidstone, Kent is believed to be the oldest surviving swimming club in Britain. It was formed in 1844, in response to concerns over drownings in the River Medway, especially since would-be rescuers would often drown because they themselves could not swim to safety. The club used to swim in the River Medway, and would hold races, diving competitions and water polo matches. The South East Gazette July 1844 reported an aquatic breakfast party: coffee and biscuits were served on a floating raft in the river. The coffee was kept hot over a fire; club members had to tread water and drink coffee at the same time. The last swimmers managed to overturn the raft, to the amusement of 150 spectators.[5] The Amateur Swimming Association was founded in 1869 in England,[citation needed] and the Oxford Swimming Club in 1909.[6] The presence of indoor baths in the cobbled area of Merton Street might have persuaded the less hardy of the aquatic brigade to join. So, bathers gradually became swimmers, and bathing pools became swimming pools.[citation needed]. In 1939, Oxford created its first major public indoor pool at Temple Cowley. The modern Olympic Games started in 1896 and included swimming races, after which the popularity of swimming pools began to spread. In the US, the Racquet Club of Philadelphia clubhouse (1907) boasts one of the world's first modern above-ground swimming pools. The first swimming pool to go to sea on an ocean liner was installed on the White Star Line's Adriatic in 1906.[7] The oldest known public swimming pool in America, Underwood Pool, is located in Belmont, Massachusetts.[8] Interest in competitive swimming grew following World War I. Standards improved and training became essential. Home swimming pools became popular in the United States after World War II and the publicity given to swimming sports by Hollywood films such as Esther Williams' Million Dollar Mermaid made a home pool a desirable status symbol. More than 50 years later, the home or residential swimming pool is a common sight. Some small nations enjoy a thriving swimming pool industry (e.g., New Zealand pop. 4,116,900 [Source NZ Census 7 March 2006] – holds the record in pools per capita with 65,000 home swimming pools and 125,000 spa pools).[citation needed] A two-storey, white concrete swimming pool building composed of horizontal cubic volumes built in 1959 at the Royal Roads Military College is on the Registry of Historic Places of Canada.[9] Further information: List of largest swimming pools Moskva Pool, at one time the largest swimming pool in the world (1980) According to the Guinness World Records, the largest swimming pool in the world is San Alfonso del Mar Seawater pool in Algarrobo, Chile. It is 1,013 m (3,323 ft) long and has an area of 8 ha (20 acres). At its deepest, it is 3.5 m (11 ft) deep.[10] It was completed in December 2006.[11] The largest indoor wave pool in North America is at the West Edmonton Mall and the largest indoor pool is at the Neutral Buoyancy Lab in the Sonny Carter Training Facility at NASA JSC in Houston.[12][13] In 2014, the Y-40 swimming pool at the Hotel Terme Millepini in Padua, Italy became the deepest indoor pool, certified by the Guinness Book of World Records[14] The recreational diving center Nemo 33 near Brussels, Belgium previously held the record until the Y-40 was completed.[15] The Fleishhacker Pool in San Francisco was the largest heated outdoor swimming pool in the United States. Opened on 23 April 1925, it measured 1,000 by 150 ft (300 by 50 m) and was so large that the lifeguards required kayaks for patrol. It was closed in 1971 due to low patronage.[16] In Europe, the largest swimming pool opened in 1934 in Elbląg (Poland), providing a water area of 33,500 square metres (361,000 sq ft).[17] One of the largest swimming pools ever built was reputedly created in Moscow after the Palace of Soviets remained uncompleted. The foundations of the palace were converted into the Moskva Pool open-air swimming pool after the process of de-Stalinisation.[18] However, after the fall of communism, Christ the Saviour Cathedral was re-built on the site between 1995 and 2000; the cathedral had originally been located there.[citation needed] The highest swimming pool is believed to be in Yangbajain (Tibet, China). This resort is located at 4200 m AMSL and has two indoor swimming pools and one outdoor swimming pool, all filled with water from hot springs.[19] Cairns Lagoon, a public swimming pool in Australia Rooftop pool in Manhattan See: Competition pools (below) Length: Most pools in the world are measured in metres, but in the United States pools are often measured in feet and yards. In the UK most pools are calibrated in metres, but older pools measured in yards still exist. In the US, pools tend to either be 25 yards (SCY-short course yards), 25 metres (SCM-short course metres) or 50 metres (long course). US high schools and the NCAA conduct short course (25 yards) competition. There are also many pools 33⅓ m long, so that 3 lengths = 100 m. This pool dimension is commonly used to accommodate water polo.[citation needed] USA Swimming (USA-S) swims in both metric and non-metric pools. However, the international standard is metres, and world records are only recognized when swum in 50 m pools (or 25 m for short course) but 25-yard pools are very common in the US. In general, the shorter the pool, the faster the time for the same distance, since the swimmer gains speed from pushing off the wall after each turn at the end of the pool. Width: Most European pools are between 10 m and 50 m wide.[citation needed] Depth: The depth of a swimming pool depends on the purpose of the pool, and whether it is open to the public or strictly for private use. If it is a private casual, relaxing pool, it may go from 1.0 to 2.0 m (3.3 to 6.6 ft) deep. If it is a public pool designed for diving, it may slope from 3.0 to 5.5 m (10 to 18 ft) in the deep end. A children's play pool may be from 0.3 to 1.2 m (1 to 4 ft) deep. Most public pools have differing depths to accommodate different swimmer requirements. In many jurisdictions, it is a requirement to show the water depth with clearly marked depths affixed to the pool walls.[citation needed] Children playing in an above-ground pool Pools can be either indoors or outdoors. They can be of any size and shape, and inground or above ground. Most pools are permanent fixtures, while others are temporary, collapsible structures. Private pools are usually smaller than public pools, on average 3.7 m × 7.3 m (12 ft × 24 ft) to 6.1 m × 12.2 m (20 ft × 40 ft) whereas public pools usually start at 24 m (80 ft).[citation needed] Home pools can be permanently built-in, or be assembled above ground and disassembled after summer. Privately owned outdoor pools in backyards or gardens started to proliferate in the 1950s in regions with warm summer climates, particularly in the United States with desegregation.[20] Construction methods for private pools vary greatly. The main types of in-ground pools are gunite shotcrete, concrete, vinyl-lined, and one-piece fiberglass shells. Many countries now have strict pool fencing requirements for private swimming pools, which require pool areas to be isolated so that unauthorized children younger than six years cannot enter. Many countries require a similar level of protection for the children residing in or visiting the house, although many pool owners prefer the visual aspect of the pool in close proximity to their living areas, and will not provide this level of protection. There is no consensus between states or countries on the requirements to fence private swimming pools, and in many places they are not required at all, particularly in rural settings.[21] Inexpensive temporary polyvinyl chloride pools can be bought in supermarkets and taken down after summer. They are used mostly outdoors in yards, are typically shallow, and often their sides are inflated with air to stay rigid. When finished, the water and air can be let out and this type of pool can be folded up for convenient storage. They are regarded in the swimming pool industry as "splasher" pools intended for cooling off and amusing toddlers and children, not for swimming, hence the alternate name of "kiddie" pools.[citation needed] Toys are available for children and other people to play with in pool water. They are often blown up with air so they are soft but still reasonably rugged, and can float in water. Tooting Bec Lido, in South London Public pools are often part of a larger leisure centre or recreational complex. These centres often have more than one pool, such as an indoor heated pool, an outdoor (chlorinated, saltwater or ozonated) pool which may be heated or unheated, a shallower children's pool, and a paddling pool for toddlers and infants. There may also be a sauna and one or more hot tubs or spa pools ("jacuzzis"). Many upscale hotels and holiday resorts have a swimming pool for use by their guests. If a pool is in a separate building, the building may be called a natatorium. The building may sometimes also have facilities for related activities, such as a diving tank. Larger pools sometimes have a diving board affixed at one edge above the water. Many public swimming pools are rectangles 25 m or 50 m long, but they can be any size and shape. There are also elaborate pools with artificial waterfalls, fountains, splash pads, wave machines, varying depths of water, bridges, and island bars. Some swimming facilities have lockers for clothing and other belongings. The lockers can require a coin to be inserted in a slot, either as deposit or payment. There are usually showers - sometimes mandatory - before and/or after swimming. There are often also lifeguards to ensure the safety of users. Wading or paddling pools are shallow bodies of water intended for use by small children, usually in parks. Concrete wading pools come in many shapes, traditionally rectangle, square or circle. Some are filled and drained daily due to lack of a filter system. Staff chlorinate the water to ensure health and safety standards.[citation needed] Racing pool at the University of Minnesota A simplified diagram of the FINA long course swimming pool standard, used at the World Championships and Summer Olympics See: #Dimensions (above) and Swimming (sport)#Competition pools The Fédération Internationale de la Natation (FINA, International Swimming Federation) sets standards for competition pools: 25 or 50 m (82 or 164 ft) long and at least 1.35 m (4.4 ft) deep. Competition pools are generally indoors and heated to enable their use all year round, and to more easily comply with the regulations regarding temperature, lighting, and automatic officiating equipment. An Olympic-size swimming pool (first used at the 1924 Olympics) is a pool that meets FINA's additional standards for the Olympic Games and for world championship events. It must be 50 by 25 m (164 by 82 ft) wide, divided into eight lanes of 2.5 m (8.2 ft) each, plus two areas of 2.5 m (8.2 ft) at each side of the pool. Depth must be at least 2 m (6.6 ft).[22] The water must be kept at 25–28 °C (77–82 °F) and the lighting level at greater than 1500 lux. There are also regulations for color of lane rope, positioning of backstroke flags (5 metres from each wall), and so on.[22] Pools claimed to be "Olympic pools" do not always meet these regulations, as FINA cannot police use of the term. Touchpads are mounted on both walls for long course meets and each end for short course. A pool may be referred to as fast or slow, depending on its physical layout.[23] Some design considerations allow the reduction of swimming resistance making the pool faster: namely, proper pool depth, elimination of currents, increased lane width, energy absorbing racing lane lines and gutters, and the use of other innovative hydraulic, acoustic and illumination designs. In the last two decades, a new style of pool has gained popularity. These consist of a small vessel (usually about 2.5 × 5 m) in which the swimmer swims in place, either against the push of an artificially generated water current or against the pull of restraining devices. These pools have several names, such as swim spas, swimming machines, or swim systems. They are all examples of different modes of resistance swimming. A home spa A boy relaxing in a hot tub Hot tubs and spa pools are common heated pools used for relaxation and sometimes for therapy. Commercial spas are common in the swimming pool area or sauna area of a health club or fitness centre, in men's clubs, women's clubs, motels and exclusive five-star hotel suites. Spa clubs may have very large pools, some segmented into increasing temperatures. In Japan, men's clubs with many spas of different size and temperature are common. Commercial spas are generally made of concrete, with a mosaic tiled interior. More recently with the innovation of the pre-form composite method where mosaic tiles are bonded to the shell this enables commercial spas to be completely factory manufactured to specification and delivered in one piece. Hot tubs are typically made somewhat like a wine barrel with straight sides, from wood such as Californian redwood held in place by metal hoops. Immersion of the head is not recommended in spas or hot tubs due to a potential risk of underwater entrapment from the pump suction forces. However, commercial installations in many countries must comply with various safety standards which reduce this risk considerably. Home spas are a worldwide retail item in western countries since the 1980s, and are sold in dedicated spa stores, pool shops, department stores, the Internet, and catalog sales books. They are almost always made from heat-extruded acrylic sheet Perspex, often colored in marble look-alike patterns. They rarely exceed 6 m2 (65 sq ft) and are typically 1 m (3 ft 3 in) deep, restricted by the availability of the raw sheet sizes (typically manufactured in Japan). There is often a mid-depth seating or lounging system, and contoured lounger style reclining seats are common. Upmarket spas include various jet nozzles (massage, pulsating, etc.), a drinks tray, lights, LCD flat-screen TV sets and other features that make the pool a recreation center. Due to their family-oriented nature, home spas are normally operated from 36 to 39 °C (97 to 102 °F). Many pools are incorporated in a redwood or simulated wood surround, and are termed "portable" as they may be placed on a patio rather than sunken into a permanent location. Some portable spas are shallow and narrow enough to fit sideways through a standard door and be used inside a room. Low power electric immersion heaters are common with home spas. Whirlpool tubs first became popular in America during the 1960s and 1970s. A spa is also called a "jacuzzi" in USA since the word became a generic after plumbing component manufacturer Jacuzzi introduced the "spa whirlpool" in 1968. Air bubbles may be introduced into the nozzles via an air-bleed venturi pump that combines cooler air with the incoming heated water to cool the pool if the temperature rises uncomfortably high. Some spas have a constant stream of bubbles fed via the seating area of the pool, or a footwell area. This is more common as a temperature control device where the heated water comes from a natural (uncontrolled heat) geothermal source, rather than artificially heated. Water temperature is usually very warm to hot — 38 to 42 °C (100 to 108 °F), so bathers usually stay in for only 20 to 30 minutes. Bromine or mineral sanitizers are often recommended as sanitizers for spas because chlorine dissipates at a high temperature thereby heightening its strong chemical smell. Ozone is an effective bactericide and is commonly included in the circulation system with cartridge filtration, but not with sand media filtration due to clogging problems with turbid body fats. An ocean pool at Coogee in Sydney, Australia In the early 20th century, especially in Australia, ocean pools were built, typically on headlands by enclosing part of the rock shelf, with water circulated through the pools by flooding from tidal tanks or by regular flooding over the side of the pools at high tide. This continued a pre-European tradition of bathing in rockpools with many of the current sites being expanded from sites used by Aboriginal Australians or early European settlers. Bathing in these pools provided security against both rough surf and sea life. There were often separate pools for women and men, or the pool was open to the sexes at different times with a break for bathers to climb in without fear of observation by the other sex.[24] These were the forerunners of modern "Olympic" pools. A variation was the later development of sea- or harbour-side pools that circulated sea water using pumps. A pool of this type was the training ground for Australian Olympian Dawn Fraser. There are currently about 100 ocean baths in New South Wales, which can range from small pools roughly 25 metres long and "Olympic Sized" (50m) to the very large, such as the 50 × 100 m baths in Newcastle. While most are free, a number charge fees, such as the Bondi Icebergs Club pool at Bondi Beach. Despite the development of chlorinated and heated pools, ocean baths remain a popular form of recreation in New South Wales. A semi-natural ocean pool exists on the central coast of New South Wales; it is called The Bogey Hole. Infinity pool An infinity edge pool (also named negative edge or vanishing edge pool) is a swimming pool which produces a visual effect of water extending to the horizon, vanishing, or extending to "infinity". Often, the water appears to fall into an ocean, lake, bay, or other similar body of water. The illusion is most effective whenever there is a significant change in elevation, though having a natural body of water on the horizon is not a limiting factor.[citation needed] Natural pools were developed in central and western Europe in the early and mid-1980s by designers and landscape architects with environmental concerns. They have recently been growing in popularity as an alternative to traditional swimming pools.[25] Natural pools are constructed bodies of water in which no chemicals or devices that disinfect or sterilize water are used, and all the cleaning of the pool is achieved purely with the motion of the water through biological filters and plants rooted hydroponically in the system. In essence, natural pools seek to recreate swimming holes and swimmable lakes, the environment where people feel safe swimming in a non-polluted, healthy, and ecologically balanced body of water. Water in natural pools has many desirable characteristics. For example, red eyes, dried-out skin and hair, and bleached bathing suits associated with overly chlorinated water are naturally absent in natural pools.[citation needed] Natural pools, by requiring a water garden to be a part of the system, offer different aesthetic options and can support amphibious wildlife such as snails, frogs, and salamanders, and even small fish if desired. A zero-entry swimming pool, also called a beach entry swimming pool, is a swimming pool having an edge or entry that gradually slopes from the deck into the water, becoming deeper with each step, in the manner of a natural beach. As there are no stairs or ladders to navigate, this type of entry assists older people, young children and people with accessibility problems (e.g., people with a physical disability) where gradual entry is useful. Indoor pools are located inside, under a roof and insulated by at least three walls. Built for the purpose of year-round swimming or training, they are found in all climate types. Since the pool room is insulated, it is less likely the heat will escape; making it less expensive to heat than an outdoor pool where the heat will escape.[26] Architecturally, the indoor pool may look like the rest of the house, but in terms of engineering, variables such as heating and ventilation are required to ensure comfortable humidity levels. In addition to drainage and automatic pool covers, there are a number of ways to remove humidity in the air that is present with any wet indoor environment. Efficient dehumidification in the indoor pool environment prevents structural damage, lowers energy costs in addition to improving the room's climate to make it a comfortable swimming environment. An astronaut prepares to descend into a swimming pool as part of a training exercise. Swimming pools are also used for events such as synchronized swimming, water polo, canoe polo and underwater sports such as underwater hockey, underwater rugby, finswimming and sport diving as well as for teaching diving, lifesaving and scuba diving techniques. They have also been used for specialist tasks such as teaching water-ditching survival techniques for aircraft and submarine crews and astronaut training. Round-cornered, irregular swimming pools, such as the Nude Bowl, were drained of water and used for vertical skateboarding. Main article: Swimming pool sanitation Levels of bacteria and viruses in swimming pool water must be kept low to prevent the spread of diseases and pathogens. Bacteria, algae and insect larvae can enter the pool if water is not properly sanitized. Pumps, mechanical sand filters, and disinfectants are often used to sanitise the water. Chemical disinfectants, such as chlorine (usually as a hypochlorite salt, such as calcium hypochlorite) and bromine, are commonly used to kill pathogens. If not properly maintained, chemical sanitation can produce high levels of disinfection byproducts. Sanitized swimming pool water can theoretically appear green if a certain amount of iron salts or copper chloride are present in the water.[27] Acesulfame potassium has been used to estimate how much urine is discharged by swimmers into a pool.[28] In a Canadian study it was estimated that swimmers had released 75 litres of urine into a large pool that had about 830,000 litres of water and was a third of the size of an olympic pool. Hot tubs were found to have higher readings of the marker. While urine itself is sterile, its degradation products may lead to asthma.[28] Swimming pool heating costs can be significantly reduced by using a pool cover. Use of a pool cover also can help reduce the amount of chemicals (chlorine, etc.) required by the pool. Outdoor pools gain heat from the sun, absorbing 75–85% of the solar energy striking the pool surface. Though a cover decreases the total amount of solar heat absorbed by the pool, the cover eliminates heat loss due to evaporation and reduces heat loss at night through its insulating properties. Most swimming pool heat loss is through evaporation.[29] The heating effectiveness of a cover depends on type. A transparent bubble cover is the most effective, as it allows the largest amount of solar flux into the pool itself. Thermal bubble covers are lightweight UV-stabilized floating covers designed to minimize heat loss on heated swimming pools. Typically they are only fitted in spring and fall (autumn) when the temperature difference between pool water and air temperature is greatest. When used consistently they can raise average pool temperatures of an outdoor pool by around 18 °Fahrenheit (11 °Celsius) when combined with a well sized solar pool heating system, or about 11° Fahrenheit (6 °Celsius) without a solar heater but with full sun exposure.[30] Bubble covers are typically applied and removed by being rolled up on a device fitted to one side of the pool (see illustration). Covers fall apart after four or five years due to sun exposure, overheating in the sun while off the pool, and chlorine attacking the plastic. Bubble covers should be removed during super chlorination. A vinyl cover absorbs more sunlight directly, allowing temperature to rise faster, but ultimately prevents the pool from reaching as high a temperature as a clear cover.[31] Vinyl covers consist of a heavier material and have a longer life expectancy than bubble covers. Insulated vinyl covers are also available with a thin layer of flexible insulation sandwiched between two layers of vinyl.[31] These covers are mandatory[citation needed] to be fitted to all pools in areas of Australia that have experienced drought since 2006. This is an effort to conserve water, as much water evaporates and transpires. An alternative to a continuous sheet of pool covering is multiple floating disks which are deployed and removed disk by disk. They cover most of the surface of the pool and offer evaporation reduction similar to continuous covers. Various types are available, for example opaque (for UV resistance and possible reduced algal growth), transparent (for esthetics), heavy and solid (for wind resistance), light and inflatable (for ease of handling). Liquid covers Liquid covers are also an option. They use a microscopically thin layer of liquid (such as cetyl alcohol) that sits on the water surface and reduces evaporation, which is one of the major sources of heat loss as well as water loss. Unlike other covers, the pool can be used while the liquid cover is in place, and the nontoxic material is safe for people as well as pumping / filtering systems. The liquid must be replenished regularly (monthly or more), and may not be effective in windy areas (since the wind will disperse the thin layer). Safety covers These covers are typically attached all winter, by hooked bungee cords or hooked springs connected to the pool deck, and are usually made in a variety of materials including coated or laminated vinyl or polypropylene mesh. They are custom designed to stop leaf debris from entering the pool but more importantly they also provide safety for animals and small children when designed and installed properly. The custom safety cover was invented in 1957 by Fred Meyer Jr. of Meyco Pool Covers when he found a dead animal in his pool. Today covers are made to meet ASTM safety barrier standards and have kept animals, people and even large vehicles out of the pool. They are not popular in warmer climates, due to the five to ten minutes it takes to fit/remove them, making them inconvenient for repeated application and removal. Automatic pool cover A pool cover can be either manually, semi-automatically, or automatically operated. Manual covers can be folded and stored in an off site location. Pool cover reels can also be used to help manually roll up the pool cover. The reel, usually on wheels, can be rolled in or out of place. Semi-automatic covers use a motor-driven reel system. They use electrical power to roll and unroll the cover, but usually require someone to pull on the cover when unrolling, or guide the cover onto the reel when rolling up the cover. Semi-automatic covers can be built into the pool deck surrounding the pool, or can use reels on carts. Automatic covers have permanently mounted reels that automatically cover and uncover the pool at the push of a button. They are the most expensive option, but are also the most convenient. These reels can be run from either an external motor requiring a pit to be dug beside the pool or using an internal motor that spins the reel. Some pool covers fit into tracks along the sides of the pool. This prevents anything or anybody from getting into the pool. They even support the weight of several people. They can be run manually, semi-automatically, or automatically. Safety covers may be required by inspectors for public pools.[31] In areas which reach freezing temperature, it is important to close a pool properly. This varies greatly between in-ground and above-ground pools. By taking steps to properly secure the pool, it lessens the likelihood that the superstructure will be damaged or compromised by freezing water.[32] A rolled up Thermal Bubble pool cover, used to reduce water loss from evaporation and heat loss from the pool In preparation for freezing temperatures, an in-ground swimming pool's pipes must be emptied. An above-ground pool should also be closed, so that ice does not drag down the pool wall, collapsing its structure. The plumbing is sealed with air, typically with rubber plugs, to prevent cracking from freezing water. The pool is typically covered to prevent leaves and other debris from falling in. The cover is attached to the pool typically using a stretch cord, similar to a bungee cord and hooks fitted into the pool surround. The skimmer is closed off or a floating device is placed into it to prevent it from completely freezing and cracking. Floating objects such as life rings or basketballs can be placed in the pool to avoid its freezing under the cover. Sand or DE filters must be backwashed, with the main drain plug removed and all water drained out. Drain plugs on the pool filter are removed after the filter has been cleaned. The pool pump motor is taken under cover. Winter chemicals are added to keep the pool clean. The innovation of a composite construction of fibreglass, with an epoxy coating and porcelain ceramic tiles has led to the Pre-form, Composite-type with significant advantages over older methods; however, it also has increased sensitivity to metal staining. In climates where there is no risk of freezing, closing down the pool for winter is not so important. Typically, the thermal cover is removed and stored. Winter sunlight can create an algae mess when a cover that has been left on all winter is removed. The pool is correctly pH-balanced and super-chlorinated. One part algaecide for every 50,000 parts of pool water should be added, and topped up each month. The pool should be filtered for one to two hours daily to keep the automated chlorination system active.[citation needed] Pools pose a risk of drowning, which may be significant for swimmers who are inexperienced, suffer from seizures, or are susceptible to a heart or respiratory condition. Lifeguards are employed at most pools to execute water rescues and administer first aid as needed in order to reduce this risk. Diving in shallow areas of a pool may also lead to significant head and neck injuries; diving, especially head-first diving, should be done in the deepest point of the pool, minimally 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in), but desirably 3.7 m (12 ft), deeper if the distance between the water and the board is great. Pools also present a risk of death due to drowning, particularly in young children. In regions where residential pools are common, drowning is a major cause of childhood death. As a precaution, many jurisdictions require that residential pools be enclosed with fencing to restrict unauthorized access. Many products exist, such as removable baby fences. The evidence for floating alarms and window/door alarms to reduce the risk of drowning is poor.[33] Some pools are equipped with computer-aided drowning prevention or other forms of electronic safety and security systems. Suspended ceilings in indoor swimming pools are safety-relevant components. The selection of materials under tension should be done with care. Especially the selection of unsuitable stainless steels can cause problems with stress corrosion cracking.[34] Further information: Mixed bathing In public swimming pools, dress code may be stricter than on public beaches, and in indoor pools stricter than outdoor pools. For example, in countries where women can be topless on the beach, this is often not allowed in a swimming pool, and a swimsuit must be worn. For men, wearing ordinary shorts and a tee shirt to go in the water at a beach may be considered acceptable, but pools usually require real swim suits or other dedicated water wear. Swimming with regular clothes on is not only unhygienic,[citation needed] but can potentially weigh a swimmer down should he or she need to be rescued. In France and some other European countries, board shorts are usually not allowed for hygienic reasons. In Nordic countries and in particular Iceland, rules about clothing and hygiene are especially strict.[35] When diving from a high board, swim suits are sometimes worn doubled up (one brief inside another) in case the outer suit tears on impact with the water.

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When it relates to purchasing a pool in Bear Country USA , many people must decide whether they would like an in-ground pool or an above ground pool. While both types of pools are popular, many people would opt for to have an in-ground pool. The only problem with in-ground pools is that they are regularly costly to afford. That signifies that if you’re the owner of an in-ground pool, it is probable that you would want to have the most out of your investment.

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This can be achieved by equipping your pool with popular pool accessories.When it relates to pool accessories in Bear Country USA , there are a broad variety of different items that are viewed accessories. These things earn the name accessory because they are not included with the acquire of a pool; therefore, they has to be purchased on an individual basis. Irrespective of the fact that pool accessories require spending extra money, it is likely that you will like having them. The reason for this is there are literally an unlimited number of accessories to select from. With a selection so wide, you are likely to find precisely what you would like or need.When many individuals think about pool accessories, pool toys often come to mind. Currently, there are a huge number of pool toys that are accessible obtainable. Over and over, these toys are classified into two different categories. These categories are regularly affordable pool toys and expensive ones. If you’re searching for low-cost pool toys, you are not alone. Many pool owners enjoying having pool toys, but many don’t want to expend a huge amount of cash on them. If this is the situation, you may want to look into obtaining beach balls, swim rings, dive sticks, and other similar toys. Most of these matters can be obtained for fewer than.If price is not an issue, you may wish to stare into more expensive pool toys.

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Jump to navigation Jump to search This swimming pool service technician is using a pool skimmer to remove debris from a courtyard fountain at an apartment complex in Tulsa, Oklahoma. A swimming pool service technician (known colloquially as a pool man) is a tradesperson who cleans swimming pools and services major pool equipment such as pumps, motors, and filters. Within the swimming pool and spa industry, these tradespeople are also known as "pool and spa service professionals" and have two national trade associations that offer membership, IPSSA, the Independent Pool And Spa Service Association, Inc. [1] and UPA, the United Pool Association.[2] Certification can be obtained through various organizations, including the NSPF and APSA. There are as many as 15,000,000 residential pools and spas in the United States and about 400,000 "commercial" or "public" swimming pools.[3][4] The two service industry trade organizations boast of having about 15,000 members, tops which means that each such professional who is a member would have 1,000 pools each to clean. Obviously there are many pool service professionals who are not members of these organizations and millions of pool owners clean their own pools. According to the National Swimming Pool Foundation,[5] which has certified hundreds of thousands of pool service operators with its CPO or Certified Pool Operators course,[6] only 26 states require that operators of public or commercial pools require that they be properly trained and certified. But there is a move afoot by the Center of Disease Control on a grant provided by the NSPF to create the first ever uniform aquatic health code.[7] These servicemen generally clean either residential or commercial swimming pools.[8] To properly clean a swimming pool, residential or commercial, a service professional, a residential pool owner or an employee of a commercial pool owner has a choice of manually cleaning the pool or using an automated pool cleaner if speed and efficiency is preferred. Swimming Pool Crack Repair

7 Must-Haves For Pool Owners

Pool owners across the world trust our pool accessories to keep their swimming pools in optimum working condition. Whether you own in ground or above ground pools, swimming pools are perhaps your best retreat for a cool, refreshing experience. Hence, to safeguard your health while enjoying a relaxing dip, you must equip your pool with the necessary accessories. For instance, you must ensure that the heating, cleaning and lighting products you choose have the ability to meet the heavy demand of providing clean, germ-free water. Hayward pool accessories are specially designed for rigorous and consistent usage, while ensuring durability.Some must-have, affordable Hayward pool accessories include:Pool pumps - Hayward offers a range of pool pumps for above and in ground pools. This includes: * NorthStar * TriStar Waterfall * TriStar Energy Solution * Super II * Super pump * Max-FloThe company also offers a Booster Pump for cost-effective cleaning. All pumps are suited to function in salty environment and are protected to withstand harsh weather conditions. The pumps are specifically designed to optimize water output while reducing power consumption by 30 to 75 percent.Pool filters - Hayward offers three varieties of filters, namely:* Sand filters - These filters remove impurities as small as 20 - 40 microns. This requires manual operation, and the cleaning process must be followed every few weeks. The filter must be back-washed by running water in the reverse direction to unload waste.* Cartridge filters - These trap wastes as small as 10-15 microns. Such filters have a greater surface area, thus allowing fewer clogs and simpler maintenance. They are designed to run at comparatively lower pressure, which applies lesser back pressure on the pool pump and provides a stronger water flow. These can be maintained by hosing once a season.* DE or Diatomaceous Earth filters - DE sieves dirt particles as small as two to five microns. They are made of fossilized exoskeletons of minute diatoms. This filter must be back-washed and then 'recharged' with DE powder.Pool Cleaners - Hayward pool cleaners are basically of three kinds, known as:* Suction * Pressure * Robotic All these cleaner types integrate the latest technology to provide effective cleaning quickly and effortlessly. These products are also quick to install and easy to maintain.You can purchase the best Hayward pool accessories from several reputed online stores. Visit us today and obtain the best branded pool supplies at the most reduced prices.

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Pool Cleaner In Bear Country USA 

South Dakota Reptile Gardens Outdoor Pool

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When it relates to purchasing a pool in Reptile Gardens , many people must decide whether they would like an in-ground pool or an above ground pool. While both types of pools are popular, many people would opt for to have an in-ground pool. The only problem with in-ground pools is that they are regularly costly to afford. That signifies that if you’re the owner of an in-ground pool, it is probable that you would want to have the most out of your investment.

How Much Does A Pool Cost

Best Swimming Pools For Sale In Places Of Interest Rapid City

This can be achieved by equipping your pool with popular pool accessories.When it relates to pool accessories in Reptile Gardens , there are a broad variety of different items that are viewed accessories. These things earn the name accessory because they are not included with the acquire of a pool; therefore, they has to be purchased on an individual basis. Irrespective of the fact that pool accessories require spending extra money, it is likely that you will like having them. The reason for this is there are literally an unlimited number of accessories to select from. With a selection so wide, you are likely to find precisely what you would like or need.When many individuals think about pool accessories, pool toys often come to mind. Currently, there are a huge number of pool toys that are accessible obtainable. Over and over, these toys are classified into two different categories. These categories are regularly affordable pool toys and expensive ones. If you’re searching for low-cost pool toys, you are not alone. Many pool owners enjoying having pool toys, but many don’t want to expend a huge amount of cash on them. If this is the situation, you may want to look into obtaining beach balls, swim rings, dive sticks, and other similar toys. Most of these matters can be obtained for fewer than.If price is not an issue, you may wish to stare into more expensive pool toys.

Swimming Pool Cleaning Services

Stay Competitive With Pool Construction Renovation, Repairs And Upgrades

This past February, 46 American Pool staff earned their Advanced Service Technician (AST) certificate. The National Pool and Spa Foundation (NPSF) provided training to our full-time staff through our in-house Learning and Development Program. The purpose of this training is to provide technicians with the knowledge and skills to service pools and spas including equipment installation, maintenance, and repair. The program builds on the knowledge gained through the NSPF Certified Pool Operator, Certified Pool Inspector and Field Service Professional Courses. These courses are considered the backbone of the technical training for our American Pool field teams. Depending on experience levels, the program can take up to 60 hours of training to complete. The Benefits of this Training: Reduced Liability for us and clients encouraging and educating on Safe Work Practices Best Practices/Knowledge More confident and competent staff to service our clients Resources that can be accessed by technicians to support work in the field Satisfied educational requirements for licensing process in a growing number of states Our staff who completed the training believe in its value and saw it as a positive experience. Here’s what two of our staffers had to say about the program: “I feel the AST course has certainly increased my knowledge base and has already led to us changing some of our processes. Overall the course benefits everyone, especially our customers as our expertise continues to grow as a company.” — Andrew Smith, American Pool New Jersey We are looking forward to certifying more full-time staff this spring through our next scheduled courses in Georgia and New York. Concrete Pool Construction

Automated Pool Cleaner Installation

Jump to search Artificial container filled with water intended for swimming For other uses, see Swimming pool (disambiguation). Backyard swimming pool Olympic swimming pool and starting blocks used for the 2006 Commonwealth Games in Melbourne, Australia A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, or paddling pool is a structure designed to hold water to enable swimming or other leisure activities. Pools can be built into the ground (in-ground pools) or built above ground (as a freestanding construction or as part of a building or other larger structure), and are also a common feature aboard ocean-liners and cruise ships. In-ground pools are most commonly constructed from materials such as concrete, natural stone, metal, plastic or fiberglass, and can be of a custom size and shape or built to a standardized size, the largest of which is the Olympic-size swimming pool. Many health clubs, fitness centers and private clubs have pools used mostly for exercise or recreation. Many towns and cities provide public pools. Many hotels have pools available for their guests to use at their leisure. Educational facilities such as universities typically have pools for physical education classes, recreational activities, leisure or competitive athletics such as swimming teams. Hot tubs and spas are pools filled with hot water, used for relaxation or hydrotherapy, and are common in homes, hotels, and health clubs. Special swimming pools are also used for diving, specialized water sports, physical therapy as well as for the training of lifeguards and astronauts. Swimming pools may be heated or unheated. See also: History of water supply and sanitation Ancient Roman baths in Bath, England, UK The "Great Bath" at the site of Mohenjo-Daro in modern-day Pakistan was most likely the first swimming pool, dug during the 3rd millennium BC. This pool is 12 by 7 metres (39 by 23 feet), is lined with bricks, and was covered with a tar-based sealant.[1] Ancient Greeks and Romans built artificial pools for athletic training in the palaestras, for nautical games and for military exercises. Roman emperors had private swimming pools in which fish were also kept, hence one of the Latin words for a pool was piscina. The first heated swimming pool was built by Gaius Maecenas of Rome in the 1st century BC. Gaius Maecenas was a rich Roman lord and considered one of the first patrons of arts.[2] Ancient Sinhalese built pairs of pools called "Kuttam Pokuna" in the kingdom of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka in the 4th century BC. They were decorated with flights of steps, punkalas or pots of abundance, and scroll design.[3] Swimming pools became popular in Britain in the mid-19th century. As early as 1837, six indoor pools with diving boards existed in London, England.[4] The Maidstone Swimming Club in Maidstone, Kent is believed to be the oldest surviving swimming club in Britain. It was formed in 1844, in response to concerns over drownings in the River Medway, especially since would-be rescuers would often drown because they themselves could not swim to safety. The club used to swim in the River Medway, and would hold races, diving competitions and water polo matches. The South East Gazette July 1844 reported an aquatic breakfast party: coffee and biscuits were served on a floating raft in the river. The coffee was kept hot over a fire; club members had to tread water and drink coffee at the same time. The last swimmers managed to overturn the raft, to the amusement of 150 spectators.[5] The Amateur Swimming Association was founded in 1869 in England,[citation needed] and the Oxford Swimming Club in 1909.[6] The presence of indoor baths in the cobbled area of Merton Street might have persuaded the less hardy of the aquatic brigade to join. So, bathers gradually became swimmers, and bathing pools became swimming pools.[citation needed]. In 1939, Oxford created its first major public indoor pool at Temple Cowley. The modern Olympic Games started in 1896 and included swimming races, after which the popularity of swimming pools began to spread. In the US, the Racquet Club of Philadelphia clubhouse (1907) boasts one of the world's first modern above-ground swimming pools. The first swimming pool to go to sea on an ocean liner was installed on the White Star Line's Adriatic in 1906.[7] The oldest known public swimming pool in America, Underwood Pool, is located in Belmont, Massachusetts.[8] Interest in competitive swimming grew following World War I. Standards improved and training became essential. Home swimming pools became popular in the United States after World War II and the publicity given to swimming sports by Hollywood films such as Esther Williams' Million Dollar Mermaid made a home pool a desirable status symbol. More than 50 years later, the home or residential swimming pool is a common sight. Some small nations enjoy a thriving swimming pool industry (e.g., New Zealand pop. 4,116,900 [Source NZ Census 7 March 2006] – holds the record in pools per capita with 65,000 home swimming pools and 125,000 spa pools).[citation needed] A two-storey, white concrete swimming pool building composed of horizontal cubic volumes built in 1959 at the Royal Roads Military College is on the Registry of Historic Places of Canada.[9] Further information: List of largest swimming pools Moskva Pool, at one time the largest swimming pool in the world (1980) According to the Guinness World Records, the largest swimming pool in the world is San Alfonso del Mar Seawater pool in Algarrobo, Chile. It is 1,013 m (3,323 ft) long and has an area of 8 ha (20 acres). At its deepest, it is 3.5 m (11 ft) deep.[10] It was completed in December 2006.[11] The largest indoor wave pool in North America is at the West Edmonton Mall and the largest indoor pool is at the Neutral Buoyancy Lab in the Sonny Carter Training Facility at NASA JSC in Houston.[12][13] In 2014, the Y-40 swimming pool at the Hotel Terme Millepini in Padua, Italy became the deepest indoor pool, certified by the Guinness Book of World Records[14] The recreational diving center Nemo 33 near Brussels, Belgium previously held the record until the Y-40 was completed.[15] The Fleishhacker Pool in San Francisco was the largest heated outdoor swimming pool in the United States. Opened on 23 April 1925, it measured 1,000 by 150 ft (300 by 50 m) and was so large that the lifeguards required kayaks for patrol. It was closed in 1971 due to low patronage.[16] In Europe, the largest swimming pool opened in 1934 in Elbląg (Poland), providing a water area of 33,500 square metres (361,000 sq ft).[17] One of the largest swimming pools ever built was reputedly created in Moscow after the Palace of Soviets remained uncompleted. The foundations of the palace were converted into the Moskva Pool open-air swimming pool after the process of de-Stalinisation.[18] However, after the fall of communism, Christ the Saviour Cathedral was re-built on the site between 1995 and 2000; the cathedral had originally been located there.[citation needed] The highest swimming pool is believed to be in Yangbajain (Tibet, China). This resort is located at 4200 m AMSL and has two indoor swimming pools and one outdoor swimming pool, all filled with water from hot springs.[19] Cairns Lagoon, a public swimming pool in Australia Rooftop pool in Manhattan See: Competition pools (below) Length: Most pools in the world are measured in metres, but in the United States pools are often measured in feet and yards. In the UK most pools are calibrated in metres, but older pools measured in yards still exist. In the US, pools tend to either be 25 yards (SCY-short course yards), 25 metres (SCM-short course metres) or 50 metres (long course). US high schools and the NCAA conduct short course (25 yards) competition. There are also many pools 33⅓ m long, so that 3 lengths = 100 m. This pool dimension is commonly used to accommodate water polo.[citation needed] USA Swimming (USA-S) swims in both metric and non-metric pools. However, the international standard is metres, and world records are only recognized when swum in 50 m pools (or 25 m for short course) but 25-yard pools are very common in the US. In general, the shorter the pool, the faster the time for the same distance, since the swimmer gains speed from pushing off the wall after each turn at the end of the pool. Width: Most European pools are between 10 m and 50 m wide.[citation needed] Depth: The depth of a swimming pool depends on the purpose of the pool, and whether it is open to the public or strictly for private use. If it is a private casual, relaxing pool, it may go from 1.0 to 2.0 m (3.3 to 6.6 ft) deep. If it is a public pool designed for diving, it may slope from 3.0 to 5.5 m (10 to 18 ft) in the deep end. A children's play pool may be from 0.3 to 1.2 m (1 to 4 ft) deep. Most public pools have differing depths to accommodate different swimmer requirements. In many jurisdictions, it is a requirement to show the water depth with clearly marked depths affixed to the pool walls.[citation needed] Children playing in an above-ground pool Pools can be either indoors or outdoors. They can be of any size and shape, and inground or above ground. Most pools are permanent fixtures, while others are temporary, collapsible structures. Private pools are usually smaller than public pools, on average 3.7 m × 7.3 m (12 ft × 24 ft) to 6.1 m × 12.2 m (20 ft × 40 ft) whereas public pools usually start at 24 m (80 ft).[citation needed] Home pools can be permanently built-in, or be assembled above ground and disassembled after summer. Privately owned outdoor pools in backyards or gardens started to proliferate in the 1950s in regions with warm summer climates, particularly in the United States with desegregation.[20] Construction methods for private pools vary greatly. The main types of in-ground pools are gunite shotcrete, concrete, vinyl-lined, and one-piece fiberglass shells. Many countries now have strict pool fencing requirements for private swimming pools, which require pool areas to be isolated so that unauthorized children younger than six years cannot enter. Many countries require a similar level of protection for the children residing in or visiting the house, although many pool owners prefer the visual aspect of the pool in close proximity to their living areas, and will not provide this level of protection. There is no consensus between states or countries on the requirements to fence private swimming pools, and in many places they are not required at all, particularly in rural settings.[21] Inexpensive temporary polyvinyl chloride pools can be bought in supermarkets and taken down after summer. They are used mostly outdoors in yards, are typically shallow, and often their sides are inflated with air to stay rigid. When finished, the water and air can be let out and this type of pool can be folded up for convenient storage. They are regarded in the swimming pool industry as "splasher" pools intended for cooling off and amusing toddlers and children, not for swimming, hence the alternate name of "kiddie" pools.[citation needed] Toys are available for children and other people to play with in pool water. They are often blown up with air so they are soft but still reasonably rugged, and can float in water. Tooting Bec Lido, in South London Public pools are often part of a larger leisure centre or recreational complex. These centres often have more than one pool, such as an indoor heated pool, an outdoor (chlorinated, saltwater or ozonated) pool which may be heated or unheated, a shallower children's pool, and a paddling pool for toddlers and infants. There may also be a sauna and one or more hot tubs or spa pools ("jacuzzis"). Many upscale hotels and holiday resorts have a swimming pool for use by their guests. If a pool is in a separate building, the building may be called a natatorium. The building may sometimes also have facilities for related activities, such as a diving tank. Larger pools sometimes have a diving board affixed at one edge above the water. Many public swimming pools are rectangles 25 m or 50 m long, but they can be any size and shape. There are also elaborate pools with artificial waterfalls, fountains, splash pads, wave machines, varying depths of water, bridges, and island bars. Some swimming facilities have lockers for clothing and other belongings. The lockers can require a coin to be inserted in a slot, either as deposit or payment. There are usually showers - sometimes mandatory - before and/or after swimming. There are often also lifeguards to ensure the safety of users. Wading or paddling pools are shallow bodies of water intended for use by small children, usually in parks. Concrete wading pools come in many shapes, traditionally rectangle, square or circle. Some are filled and drained daily due to lack of a filter system. Staff chlorinate the water to ensure health and safety standards.[citation needed] Racing pool at the University of Minnesota A simplified diagram of the FINA long course swimming pool standard, used at the World Championships and Summer Olympics See: #Dimensions (above) and Swimming (sport)#Competition pools The Fédération Internationale de la Natation (FINA, International Swimming Federation) sets standards for competition pools: 25 or 50 m (82 or 164 ft) long and at least 1.35 m (4.4 ft) deep. Competition pools are generally indoors and heated to enable their use all year round, and to more easily comply with the regulations regarding temperature, lighting, and automatic officiating equipment. An Olympic-size swimming pool (first used at the 1924 Olympics) is a pool that meets FINA's additional standards for the Olympic Games and for world championship events. It must be 50 by 25 m (164 by 82 ft) wide, divided into eight lanes of 2.5 m (8.2 ft) each, plus two areas of 2.5 m (8.2 ft) at each side of the pool. Depth must be at least 2 m (6.6 ft).[22] The water must be kept at 25–28 °C (77–82 °F) and the lighting level at greater than 1500 lux. There are also regulations for color of lane rope, positioning of backstroke flags (5 metres from each wall), and so on.[22] Pools claimed to be "Olympic pools" do not always meet these regulations, as FINA cannot police use of the term. Touchpads are mounted on both walls for long course meets and each end for short course. A pool may be referred to as fast or slow, depending on its physical layout.[23] Some design considerations allow the reduction of swimming resistance making the pool faster: namely, proper pool depth, elimination of currents, increased lane width, energy absorbing racing lane lines and gutters, and the use of other innovative hydraulic, acoustic and illumination designs. In the last two decades, a new style of pool has gained popularity. These consist of a small vessel (usually about 2.5 × 5 m) in which the swimmer swims in place, either against the push of an artificially generated water current or against the pull of restraining devices. These pools have several names, such as swim spas, swimming machines, or swim systems. They are all examples of different modes of resistance swimming. A home spa A boy relaxing in a hot tub Hot tubs and spa pools are common heated pools used for relaxation and sometimes for therapy. Commercial spas are common in the swimming pool area or sauna area of a health club or fitness centre, in men's clubs, women's clubs, motels and exclusive five-star hotel suites. Spa clubs may have very large pools, some segmented into increasing temperatures. In Japan, men's clubs with many spas of different size and temperature are common. Commercial spas are generally made of concrete, with a mosaic tiled interior. More recently with the innovation of the pre-form composite method where mosaic tiles are bonded to the shell this enables commercial spas to be completely factory manufactured to specification and delivered in one piece. Hot tubs are typically made somewhat like a wine barrel with straight sides, from wood such as Californian redwood held in place by metal hoops. Immersion of the head is not recommended in spas or hot tubs due to a potential risk of underwater entrapment from the pump suction forces. However, commercial installations in many countries must comply with various safety standards which reduce this risk considerably. Home spas are a worldwide retail item in western countries since the 1980s, and are sold in dedicated spa stores, pool shops, department stores, the Internet, and catalog sales books. They are almost always made from heat-extruded acrylic sheet Perspex, often colored in marble look-alike patterns. They rarely exceed 6 m2 (65 sq ft) and are typically 1 m (3 ft 3 in) deep, restricted by the availability of the raw sheet sizes (typically manufactured in Japan). There is often a mid-depth seating or lounging system, and contoured lounger style reclining seats are common. Upmarket spas include various jet nozzles (massage, pulsating, etc.), a drinks tray, lights, LCD flat-screen TV sets and other features that make the pool a recreation center. Due to their family-oriented nature, home spas are normally operated from 36 to 39 °C (97 to 102 °F). Many pools are incorporated in a redwood or simulated wood surround, and are termed "portable" as they may be placed on a patio rather than sunken into a permanent location. Some portable spas are shallow and narrow enough to fit sideways through a standard door and be used inside a room. Low power electric immersion heaters are common with home spas. Whirlpool tubs first became popular in America during the 1960s and 1970s. A spa is also called a "jacuzzi" in USA since the word became a generic after plumbing component manufacturer Jacuzzi introduced the "spa whirlpool" in 1968. Air bubbles may be introduced into the nozzles via an air-bleed venturi pump that combines cooler air with the incoming heated water to cool the pool if the temperature rises uncomfortably high. Some spas have a constant stream of bubbles fed via the seating area of the pool, or a footwell area. This is more common as a temperature control device where the heated water comes from a natural (uncontrolled heat) geothermal source, rather than artificially heated. Water temperature is usually very warm to hot — 38 to 42 °C (100 to 108 °F), so bathers usually stay in for only 20 to 30 minutes. Bromine or mineral sanitizers are often recommended as sanitizers for spas because chlorine dissipates at a high temperature thereby heightening its strong chemical smell. Ozone is an effective bactericide and is commonly included in the circulation system with cartridge filtration, but not with sand media filtration due to clogging problems with turbid body fats. An ocean pool at Coogee in Sydney, Australia In the early 20th century, especially in Australia, ocean pools were built, typically on headlands by enclosing part of the rock shelf, with water circulated through the pools by flooding from tidal tanks or by regular flooding over the side of the pools at high tide. This continued a pre-European tradition of bathing in rockpools with many of the current sites being expanded from sites used by Aboriginal Australians or early European settlers. Bathing in these pools provided security against both rough surf and sea life. There were often separate pools for women and men, or the pool was open to the sexes at different times with a break for bathers to climb in without fear of observation by the other sex.[24] These were the forerunners of modern "Olympic" pools. A variation was the later development of sea- or harbour-side pools that circulated sea water using pumps. A pool of this type was the training ground for Australian Olympian Dawn Fraser. There are currently about 100 ocean baths in New South Wales, which can range from small pools roughly 25 metres long and "Olympic Sized" (50m) to the very large, such as the 50 × 100 m baths in Newcastle. While most are free, a number charge fees, such as the Bondi Icebergs Club pool at Bondi Beach. Despite the development of chlorinated and heated pools, ocean baths remain a popular form of recreation in New South Wales. A semi-natural ocean pool exists on the central coast of New South Wales; it is called The Bogey Hole. Infinity pool An infinity edge pool (also named negative edge or vanishing edge pool) is a swimming pool which produces a visual effect of water extending to the horizon, vanishing, or extending to "infinity". Often, the water appears to fall into an ocean, lake, bay, or other similar body of water. The illusion is most effective whenever there is a significant change in elevation, though having a natural body of water on the horizon is not a limiting factor.[citation needed] Natural pools were developed in central and western Europe in the early and mid-1980s by designers and landscape architects with environmental concerns. They have recently been growing in popularity as an alternative to traditional swimming pools.[25] Natural pools are constructed bodies of water in which no chemicals or devices that disinfect or sterilize water are used, and all the cleaning of the pool is achieved purely with the motion of the water through biological filters and plants rooted hydroponically in the system. In essence, natural pools seek to recreate swimming holes and swimmable lakes, the environment where people feel safe swimming in a non-polluted, healthy, and ecologically balanced body of water. Water in natural pools has many desirable characteristics. For example, red eyes, dried-out skin and hair, and bleached bathing suits associated with overly chlorinated water are naturally absent in natural pools.[citation needed] Natural pools, by requiring a water garden to be a part of the system, offer different aesthetic options and can support amphibious wildlife such as snails, frogs, and salamanders, and even small fish if desired. A zero-entry swimming pool, also called a beach entry swimming pool, is a swimming pool having an edge or entry that gradually slopes from the deck into the water, becoming deeper with each step, in the manner of a natural beach. As there are no stairs or ladders to navigate, this type of entry assists older people, young children and people with accessibility problems (e.g., people with a physical disability) where gradual entry is useful. Indoor pools are located inside, under a roof and insulated by at least three walls. Built for the purpose of year-round swimming or training, they are found in all climate types. Since the pool room is insulated, it is less likely the heat will escape; making it less expensive to heat than an outdoor pool where the heat will escape.[26] Architecturally, the indoor pool may look like the rest of the house, but in terms of engineering, variables such as heating and ventilation are required to ensure comfortable humidity levels. In addition to drainage and automatic pool covers, there are a number of ways to remove humidity in the air that is present with any wet indoor environment. Efficient dehumidification in the indoor pool environment prevents structural damage, lowers energy costs in addition to improving the room's climate to make it a comfortable swimming environment. An astronaut prepares to descend into a swimming pool as part of a training exercise. Swimming pools are also used for events such as synchronized swimming, water polo, canoe polo and underwater sports such as underwater hockey, underwater rugby, finswimming and sport diving as well as for teaching diving, lifesaving and scuba diving techniques. They have also been used for specialist tasks such as teaching water-ditching survival techniques for aircraft and submarine crews and astronaut training. Round-cornered, irregular swimming pools, such as the Nude Bowl, were drained of water and used for vertical skateboarding. Main article: Swimming pool sanitation Levels of bacteria and viruses in swimming pool water must be kept low to prevent the spread of diseases and pathogens. Bacteria, algae and insect larvae can enter the pool if water is not properly sanitized. Pumps, mechanical sand filters, and disinfectants are often used to sanitise the water. Chemical disinfectants, such as chlorine (usually as a hypochlorite salt, such as calcium hypochlorite) and bromine, are commonly used to kill pathogens. If not properly maintained, chemical sanitation can produce high levels of disinfection byproducts. Sanitized swimming pool water can theoretically appear green if a certain amount of iron salts or copper chloride are present in the water.[27] Acesulfame potassium has been used to estimate how much urine is discharged by swimmers into a pool.[28] In a Canadian study it was estimated that swimmers had released 75 litres of urine into a large pool that had about 830,000 litres of water and was a third of the size of an olympic pool. Hot tubs were found to have higher readings of the marker. While urine itself is sterile, its degradation products may lead to asthma.[28] Swimming pool heating costs can be significantly reduced by using a pool cover. Use of a pool cover also can help reduce the amount of chemicals (chlorine, etc.) required by the pool. Outdoor pools gain heat from the sun, absorbing 75–85% of the solar energy striking the pool surface. Though a cover decreases the total amount of solar heat absorbed by the pool, the cover eliminates heat loss due to evaporation and reduces heat loss at night through its insulating properties. Most swimming pool heat loss is through evaporation.[29] The heating effectiveness of a cover depends on type. A transparent bubble cover is the most effective, as it allows the largest amount of solar flux into the pool itself. Thermal bubble covers are lightweight UV-stabilized floating covers designed to minimize heat loss on heated swimming pools. Typically they are only fitted in spring and fall (autumn) when the temperature difference between pool water and air temperature is greatest. When used consistently they can raise average pool temperatures of an outdoor pool by around 18 °Fahrenheit (11 °Celsius) when combined with a well sized solar pool heating system, or about 11° Fahrenheit (6 °Celsius) without a solar heater but with full sun exposure.[30] Bubble covers are typically applied and removed by being rolled up on a device fitted to one side of the pool (see illustration). Covers fall apart after four or five years due to sun exposure, overheating in the sun while off the pool, and chlorine attacking the plastic. Bubble covers should be removed during super chlorination. A vinyl cover absorbs more sunlight directly, allowing temperature to rise faster, but ultimately prevents the pool from reaching as high a temperature as a clear cover.[31] Vinyl covers consist of a heavier material and have a longer life expectancy than bubble covers. Insulated vinyl covers are also available with a thin layer of flexible insulation sandwiched between two layers of vinyl.[31] These covers are mandatory[citation needed] to be fitted to all pools in areas of Australia that have experienced drought since 2006. This is an effort to conserve water, as much water evaporates and transpires. An alternative to a continuous sheet of pool covering is multiple floating disks which are deployed and removed disk by disk. They cover most of the surface of the pool and offer evaporation reduction similar to continuous covers. Various types are available, for example opaque (for UV resistance and possible reduced algal growth), transparent (for esthetics), heavy and solid (for wind resistance), light and inflatable (for ease of handling). Liquid covers Liquid covers are also an option. They use a microscopically thin layer of liquid (such as cetyl alcohol) that sits on the water surface and reduces evaporation, which is one of the major sources of heat loss as well as water loss. Unlike other covers, the pool can be used while the liquid cover is in place, and the nontoxic material is safe for people as well as pumping / filtering systems. The liquid must be replenished regularly (monthly or more), and may not be effective in windy areas (since the wind will disperse the thin layer). Safety covers These covers are typically attached all winter, by hooked bungee cords or hooked springs connected to the pool deck, and are usually made in a variety of materials including coated or laminated vinyl or polypropylene mesh. They are custom designed to stop leaf debris from entering the pool but more importantly they also provide safety for animals and small children when designed and installed properly. The custom safety cover was invented in 1957 by Fred Meyer Jr. of Meyco Pool Covers when he found a dead animal in his pool. Today covers are made to meet ASTM safety barrier standards and have kept animals, people and even large vehicles out of the pool. They are not popular in warmer climates, due to the five to ten minutes it takes to fit/remove them, making them inconvenient for repeated application and removal. Automatic pool cover A pool cover can be either manually, semi-automatically, or automatically operated. Manual covers can be folded and stored in an off site location. Pool cover reels can also be used to help manually roll up the pool cover. The reel, usually on wheels, can be rolled in or out of place. Semi-automatic covers use a motor-driven reel system. They use electrical power to roll and unroll the cover, but usually require someone to pull on the cover when unrolling, or guide the cover onto the reel when rolling up the cover. Semi-automatic covers can be built into the pool deck surrounding the pool, or can use reels on carts. Automatic covers have permanently mounted reels that automatically cover and uncover the pool at the push of a button. They are the most expensive option, but are also the most convenient. These reels can be run from either an external motor requiring a pit to be dug beside the pool or using an internal motor that spins the reel. Some pool covers fit into tracks along the sides of the pool. This prevents anything or anybody from getting into the pool. They even support the weight of several people. They can be run manually, semi-automatically, or automatically. Safety covers may be required by inspectors for public pools.[31] In areas which reach freezing temperature, it is important to close a pool properly. This varies greatly between in-ground and above-ground pools. By taking steps to properly secure the pool, it lessens the likelihood that the superstructure will be damaged or compromised by freezing water.[32] A rolled up Thermal Bubble pool cover, used to reduce water loss from evaporation and heat loss from the pool In preparation for freezing temperatures, an in-ground swimming pool's pipes must be emptied. An above-ground pool should also be closed, so that ice does not drag down the pool wall, collapsing its structure. The plumbing is sealed with air, typically with rubber plugs, to prevent cracking from freezing water. The pool is typically covered to prevent leaves and other debris from falling in. The cover is attached to the pool typically using a stretch cord, similar to a bungee cord and hooks fitted into the pool surround. The skimmer is closed off or a floating device is placed into it to prevent it from completely freezing and cracking. Floating objects such as life rings or basketballs can be placed in the pool to avoid its freezing under the cover. Sand or DE filters must be backwashed, with the main drain plug removed and all water drained out. Drain plugs on the pool filter are removed after the filter has been cleaned. The pool pump motor is taken under cover. Winter chemicals are added to keep the pool clean. The innovation of a composite construction of fibreglass, with an epoxy coating and porcelain ceramic tiles has led to the Pre-form, Composite-type with significant advantages over older methods; however, it also has increased sensitivity to metal staining. In climates where there is no risk of freezing, closing down the pool for winter is not so important. Typically, the thermal cover is removed and stored. Winter sunlight can create an algae mess when a cover that has been left on all winter is removed. The pool is correctly pH-balanced and super-chlorinated. One part algaecide for every 50,000 parts of pool water should be added, and topped up each month. The pool should be filtered for one to two hours daily to keep the automated chlorination system active.[citation needed] Pools pose a risk of drowning, which may be significant for swimmers who are inexperienced, suffer from seizures, or are susceptible to a heart or respiratory condition. Lifeguards are employed at most pools to execute water rescues and administer first aid as needed in order to reduce this risk. Diving in shallow areas of a pool may also lead to significant head and neck injuries; diving, especially head-first diving, should be done in the deepest point of the pool, minimally 2.4 m (7 ft 10 in), but desirably 3.7 m (12 ft), deeper if the distance between the water and the board is great. Pools also present a risk of death due to drowning, particularly in young children. In regions where residential pools are common, drowning is a major cause of childhood death. As a precaution, many jurisdictions require that residential pools be enclosed with fencing to restrict unauthorized access. Many products exist, such as removable baby fences. The evidence for floating alarms and window/door alarms to reduce the risk of drowning is poor.[33] Some pools are equipped with computer-aided drowning prevention or other forms of electronic safety and security systems. Suspended ceilings in indoor swimming pools are safety-relevant components. The selection of materials under tension should be done with care. Especially the selection of unsuitable stainless steels can cause problems with stress corrosion cracking.[34] Further information: Mixed bathing In public swimming pools, dress code may be stricter than on public beaches, and in indoor pools stricter than outdoor pools. For example, in countries where women can be topless on the beach, this is often not allowed in a swimming pool, and a swimsuit must be worn. For men, wearing ordinary shorts and a tee shirt to go in the water at a beach may be considered acceptable, but pools usually require real swim suits or other dedicated water wear. Swimming with regular clothes on is not only unhygienic,[citation needed] but can potentially weigh a swimmer down should he or she need to be rescued. In France and some other European countries, board shorts are usually not allowed for hygienic reasons. In Nordic countries and in particular Iceland, rules about clothing and hygiene are especially strict.[35] When diving from a high board, swim suits are sometimes worn doubled up (one brief inside another) in case the outer suit tears on impact with the water.

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Swimming Pools For Sale In Reptile Gardens